excerpt – An Intimate Chronicle

The Diaries of William ClaytonJournal Three
Nauvoo Temple 1845-1846

On the day temple ordinances begin, Heber C. Kimball asks William Clayton to help him keep a record of Nauvoo temple-related activities. Clayton describes how the Saints hurry to perform the necessary rites prior to their departure for the west.

[December 10, 1845. Wednesday.]1 This morning went up to the Temple in company with my wife and sister [Sarah Ann] Whitney.2 The morning very fine and pleasant but cold. I arrived at 10 o clock and found a number of the brethren already present and some of their wives. President [Brigham] Young engaged himself, by fixing the curtains on the East Window. I assisted him with Sisters Kimball, Pratt and Whitney. About half after 10 o clock it was reported that priest [Hamilton] Tucker (Catholic) and his associates were below waiting an interview with the Twelve and Council. At 11 1/4 Mr. [Hamilton] Tucker and Mr. [] Hamilton were admitted into the upper room of the Temple accompanied by Bishop Joseph L. Heywood who gave the gentlemen an introduction to those present. The propositions of the council in regard to the sale of our property were presented to Mr. Tucker in writing who read them over and then handed them to Mr. Hamilton who also read them. The gentlemen were then invited into President Youngs room with myself, President Young, Willard Richards, Orson Hyde, John Taylor, Amasa Lyman, John E. Page, George A. Smith, P[arley] P. Pratt, George Miller, John M. Bernhisel, Joseph L. Heywood, W[illia]m Clayton. Mr. Tucker made some observations respecting the two Main Rooms of the Temple. He thought they were so high it would be difficult for a speaker. President Young replied and explained in regard to that matter, also the pulpits, place for the Organ &c. and also the side rooms. Mr. Hamilton asked a question as to the disposal of our public buildings. In answer to which Elder Hyde read aloud the written propositions and offered some explanations. A conversation then followed between Mr. Tucker, President Young and Elder Hyde on the subject. President Young remarked that we wish to realise from the sale of our property, sufficient to take all our poor with us in a comfortable manner.3 If he was alone he could take his rifle and make his way to the Pacific with little difficulty but at the same time he don’t wish to do it. He would rather have his wagons and go with all the rest of the Church comfortable.

Mr. Tucker said he thought it would be wisdom to publish our propositions in all the Catholic papers, and lay the matter plain before their people. He should also think it advisable for the Catholic Bishops to send a competent committee to asertain the value of our property &c. at the same time they will use all their influence to effect a sale as speedily as possible. He thinks they have men in St. Louis, New York and other Cities who could soon raise the amount we want, but the time is so very short, he dont know whether it can be done so soon. He then asked if we would be willing to have our propositions published in their papers. President Young replied we should have no objections providing it was understood that we reserve the right to sell when we had a chance. Elder P. P. Pratt thought it would be well to talk over the propositions and investigate them so as to have every thing perfectly and clearly understood. Mr. Hamilton wished to ascertain upon what conditions they could obtain two of our public buildings, one for a school and one for a Church. They intended to write to the Bishop and wished to be able to supply him with some information on this subject.

President Young said he was well aware that there were many men in the Catholic Church who could furnish all the money we want at once, but he supposed it was with them as it was with a Mr. Butler who owned a wealthy Bank and asked why he did not sign off more Bills. He replied it was a good deal of trouble to sign off the Bills. He supposed it was too much trouble for them to dig their money out of their vaults. But he wished it understood that while we make a liberal proposition to dispose of our property we must have the means to help ourselves away.

Mr. Tucker said their object was to write to the Bishop and enclose our propositions in his letter, at the same time advising him either to come himself or to appoint a committee of efficient men to come and value the property and enter into terms for a final agreement. He said the sum to be raised was large and the time very short to the first of April but he thinks it can be accomplished. He thinks they can be able to give us a decided answer by the 25th inst.

President Young said he would like to add a note to our proposals before it goes for publication to this effect that If they agree to our propositions we will lease them the Temple for a period of from five to thirty 5 years at a reasonable price, the rent to be paid in finishing the unfinished parts of the Temple, the wall around the Temple Block, and the Block West of the Temple, and keeping the Temple in repair.

The council agreed to the amendment which was accordingly added to the proposals and handed to Mr. Tucker.

Mr. Tucker seemed to give much encouragement that an arrangement would speedily be entered into, to accomplish what we want. Both the gentlemen seem highly pleased with the Temple and the City and appear to feel sanguine that the Catholics should get this Temple and vicinity.

About half past 12 they departed evidently feeling well towards us.

W. W. Phelps has been appointed door keeper this day in place of Elder George A. Smith who is engaged with matters of more importance ….4

At half past 3 o clock President Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, John Taylor, P. P. Pratt, George Miller, Alpheus Cutler, Wm. Clayton, John M. Bernhisel and Lucien Woodworth retired to the Bishops room and consecrated 16 bottles of Oil which had been perfumed by Bishop Whitney for the purpose of anointing.5

At 1/4 to 4 Elder Hyde came into my room and brought tidings that our Sheriff J[acob] B. Backenstos was clear and acquitted.6 The jury said if there had been no witnesses only on the part of the state it would not have required two minutes to have made up their verdict. They have got two of the mob witnesses in jail for perjury and Backenstos is gone to Springfield to request the Governor to withdraw his troops.

At 3 o clock Sister Mary Ann Young and Vilate Kimball, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, commenced washing and anointing each other being the first in this holy Temple of the Lord.7 This was done in the preparation room in the North West corner of the Attic story. About the same time President Young put up the vail8 in its place which things finish and complete the Celestial Room preparatory to the endowment . . .9

At 25 minutes past 4 o clock President Young and Heber C. Kimball commenced washing Elder Willard Richards.

About 5 o clock Isaac Morley and his wife Lucy Morley came in. And about half past 5, Joseph Fielding and Joseph C. Kingsbury, C[ornelius] P. Lott. We continued washing and anointing those present till about 7 1/2 o clock.

At 20 minutes to 8 o clock President Young announced that all things were now ready to commence and go through with the ordinances. He said that after we get properly organized and ready to go on without confusion, no person will be permitted to talk, nor walk about in the main rooms, neither would any person be expected to be in the Celestial room only those who were necessary to carry on the work. At the same hour he took the chair and appointed P. P. Pratt and John Taylor to assist him in taking those through who were now prepared. W. W. Phelps acted as serpent10 . . . These went through all the ordinances untill they were passed through the vail at which time it was half past nine o clock.11 President Young then called all present into the Celestial room where we kneeled down and Amasa Lyman offered up prayers.

Some of the brethren and sisters then retired home and the rest continued washing and anointing and taking through the whole ordinance until half past 3 o clock in the morning . . .

After all was lead through those present offered up the signs of the Holy Priesthood and offered up Prayers. Elder Orson Hyde gave praise to the Most High for his goodness. H. C. Kimball presides as Eloheem, Orson Hyde as Jehovah and George A. Smith as Michael and N. K. Whitney as the serpent. See 4 pages further.12

[December 11, 1845. Thursday.] I will now give a description of the way the attic Story is finished. The main room is 88 feet 2 inches long and 28 feet 8 inches wide. It is arched over, and the arch is divided into six spaces by cross beams to support the roof. There are 6 small rooms on each side the main room about 14 feet square each. The last one on the West end on each side is a little smaller. The first room on the South side beginning on the East end is President Brighams Room, the second Elder H. C. Kimball the third Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt and Orson Pratt the fourth John Taylor, Amasa Lyman, J. E. Page and G. A. Smith the fifth Joseph Young and presidents of Seventies. The sixth is a preparation room for the male Members.

On the North side, the first from the East end is for Bishop Whitney and the lesser Priesthood; the second for the High Council. The third and fourth president George Miller and the High Priests quorum. The fifth the Elders Quorum and the sixth the female preparation Room.

The main room is divided into apartments for the ceremonies of the endowment. Beginning from the door at the West end is an all[e]y about 5 feet wide extending to about 3 feet beyond the first Beam of[f] the arch. On each side of the Alley is a small room partitioned off where the saints receive the first part of the ceremony or where the man is created and a help mate given to him. From these rooms to the third partition in the Arch is planted the garden, which is nicely decorated and set off with shrubs and trees in pots and Boxes to represent the Garden of Eden. In this apartment is also an altar. Here the man and woman are placed and commandments given to them in addition to what is given in the creation. Here also after the man and woman has eaten the forbidden fruit is given to them a charge at the Alter and the first and second tokens of the Aaronic Priesthood. They are then thrust out into a room which is dark being the one on the North side between the fourth and fifth division of the arch which represents the telestial kingdom or the world. Opposite to this is another apartment of the same size representing the terrestrial kingdom and between these two is an alley about 4 feet wide. In the telestial kingdom, after the man has proved himself faithful he receives the first signs and tokens of the Melchizedek priesthood and an additional charge. Here also he vouches for the conduct of his companion. They are then left to prove themselves faithful, after which they are admitted into the terrestrial kingdom, where at the alter they receive an additional charge and the second token of the Melchizedek Priesthood and also the key word on the five points of fellowship.13

There are words given with every token and the new name is given in the preparation room when they receive their washing and annointing.

After received all the tokens and words and signs they are led to the vail where they give each to Eloheem through the vail and are then admitted into the Celestial Room.

The Celestial room occupies the remainder of the main room being the space between two divisions of the Arch. This is adorned with a number of splendid mirrors, paintings and portraits. On the East wall are the following Portraits viz. in the centre President Brigham Young and next to the left H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde. To the right, Willard Richards, John Taylor and George A. Smith.

On the East side of the first division of the Arch in the centre is the portrait of L. N. Scovil, next to the right is George A. Smith, next John Smith the Patriarch. To the left is Bathsheba Smith, and Mother Lucy Smith.

On the West side of this partition in the centre is the portrait of [] to the left H. C. Kimball and Caroline Smith. To the right [] William Collier, John L. Smith.

On the East side of the second division in the centre stands a brass clock over which is a splendid portrait of the late Hyrum Smith and next to the right C[harles] C. Rich, George Miller and Clarissa Smith. To the left Sister Rich, next Mary Catherine Miller and last Leonora A. Taylor.

There are also a number of maps. A large map of the world hangs on the North side wall, and three maps of the United States and a plot of the City of Nauvoo hangs on the West partition. On the South wall hangs another large map of the United States, besides a number of large mirrors and paintings.

In the centre and body of the Celestial Room are two splendid tables and four splendid sofas. Also a small table opposite the large Window on the East end of the room on which stands the Celestial and terrestrial Globes.

All the rooms are nicely carpeted and has a very splendid and comfortable appearance. There are a number of handsome chairs in it.

Brigham Young and wife, H. C. Kimball and G. A. Smith, also Sister Mary Smith, Mercy R. Thompson, W. W. Phelps and his wife tarried in the Temple all night. We only obtained about an hour and a half sleep. In the morning Sister Young and the other sisters went home. Brigham Young and myself went to Joseph C. Kingsbury’s and eat breakfast. We there had an interview with Willard Snow who has just returned from his Mission to Boston. From thence we returned back to the Temple and found several of the brethren had come in with the expectations of receiving their anointings…We commenced a little before one o clock. George A. Smith and myself washed the brethren and B. Young and Amasa Lyman anointed them assisted by George Miller. Sister Vilate Kimball and Elizabeth Ann Whitney attended to washing the females. At 2 o clock they also washed and anointed Mercy R. Thompson.

At 1 o clock Elder Orson Pratt came up into the room while we were attending to washing and anointing. He has just returned from his mission to the East and brought with him $400 worth of six shooters.

See 4 pages back. The men were washed by G[eorge] A. Smith and John Taylor, and anointed by myself and B. Young. The sisters were washed and anointed by Sister Whitney, Mary Ann Young and Elizabeth Ann Whitney.

About half past 1 o clock mother Lucy Smith arrived. The weather is cold and some inclined to snow.

A little before three Sister Elizabeth Ann Whitney and my wife got through washing the sisters . . .

The first charge was given in the garden by President Young, the other two charges by H. C. Kimball, who also received most of them through the vail and Amasa Lyman received the remainder…It was about 5 o clock P.M., when they commenced washing and anointing these.

A little before six we commenced taking them through the ceremonies, Heber C. Kimball acting as Eloheem, George A. Smith as Jehovah, Orson Hyde as Michael, W. W. Phelps as the serpent. We were also assisted by P. P. Pratt . . .

President having gone out some time ago returned while we were in the garden. The signs and tokens were all given by H. C. Kimball. He also received them through the vail. It was about half past seven when we got through. Those last who were taken through were then instructed farther regarding the signs by Elder Orson Hyde.14

The President then called all those who were present into the Celestial room. We formed a circle, offered up the signs, and then offered up prayers for the sick; for our families and that the Lord would frustrate the plans of our enemies. Elder John E. Page being mouth.

After we got through President Young called the following persons into Hebers Room viz. H[eber] C. Kimball, P[arley] P. Pratt, J[ohn] Taylor, O[rson] Hyde, John E. Page, George A. Smith, Amasa Lyman, Newel K. Whitney, George Miller and W[illia]m Clayton. The President then stated that he had received a letter from Samuel Brannan saying that he had been at Washington and had learned that the Secretary of War and the heads of the government were laying plans and were determined to prevent our moving West, alleging that it is against the Law for an armed body of men to go from the United States to any other government. They say it will not do to let the Mormons go to California nor Oregon, neither will it do to let them tarry in the States and they must be exterminated from the face of the earth.15

We offered up the signs of the Holy priesthood and prayed that the Lord would defeat and frustrate all the plans of our enemies and inasmuch as they make plots and lay plans to exterminate this people and destroy the priesthood from off the earth that the curse of God may come upon them even all the evil which they design to bring upon this people. And that the Lord would preserve the lives of his servants and lead us out of this ungodly nation in peace.

After we got through there was a unanimous feeling that the Lord would answer our prayers and defeat our enemies. President Young said we should go away from here in peace in spite of our enemies.

It was now a little after 9 o clock and we soon after retired to our homes. President Young and Amasa Lyman tarried in the Temple all the night.

[December 12, 1845. Friday.] This morning I again went up to the Temple with my wife. The morning is very fine but cold. We arrived at a quarter to 10 and found several of the brethren already arrived and preparing for the washings of others who have been notified to attend. At a quarter after 10 A.M. we again commenced the washings and anointings to the presidents of the seventies16 and their wives and also to Elder Orson Pratt and his wife…He was washed and anointed by George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman who did the washing and President Young and H. C. Kimball attended to anointing.

Sarah Marinda Pratt was washed and anointed by V[ilate] Kimball.

At half past 12 o clock all things being prepared to take these through the remaining ceremonies they commenced President Young acting as Eloheem P. P. Pratt as Jehovah Orson Hyde as Michael Wm. W. Phelps as the serpent H. C. Kimball assisted through the whole. President Young gave all the charges and received Orson Pratt through the Vail. The remainder of the men were received through by O. Hyde, the females by their husbands . . .

At a quarter after 3 P.M. President Young, H. C. Kimball, N. K. Whitney and Vilate Kimball went to J[oseph] C. Kingsbury’s to dinner . . .

After prayers the following took their blankets and lay down to rest on the floor of the Temple where they tarried over night, viz. President B. Young, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith, Wm. W. Phelps, Charles C. Rich, John D. Lee, David Candland. Elder Joseph Young and his wife tarried in his own room over night.

During the whole of the three days already spent in the endowment, President Brigham Young presided and dictated the ordinances and also took an active part in nearly every instance except when entirely overcome by fatigue through his constant labors to forward the work.17

Perfect peace and harmony prevail during the whole time, except in one case which happened this afternoon, wherein Phebe Woodworth interfered with business which did not belong to her, and in the presence of those who are higher in authority than her, and undertook to dictate and control those who were legally and righteously appointed to superintend and adminster the ordinance of washing and anointing of the females.

[December 13, 1845. Saturday.] This morning President Young and Elder Lyman left the Temple for a little season and returned about a quarter after 10 a number of the brethren being already assembled and preparing to continue the ordinances. About the same time Elder H. C. Kimball and Vilate Kimball arrived and soon after P. P. Pratt, O. Hyde, O. Pratt, N. K. Whitney, Sister Whitney and others . . .

Last evening an arrangement was made establishing better order in conducting the endowment. Under this order it is the province of Eloheem, Jehovah and Michael to create the world, plant the Garden and create the man and give his help meet. Eloheem gives the charge to Adam in the Garden and thrusts them into the telestial kingdom or the world. Then Peter assisted by James and John conducts them through the Telestial and Terrestrial kingdom administering the charges and tokens in each and conducts them to the vail where they are received by the Eloheem and after talking with him by words and tokens are admitted by him into the Celestial kingdom . . .18

About 7 o clock a report came up that a person just from Springfield states that Lucien B. Adams, son of the late Judge Adams has effected a complete revolution in the minds of the inhabitants of Springfield, so much so that Judge Pope is convinced that Elder [Theodore] Turley is imprisoned through persecution and says he shall discharge him the moment he arrives at Springfield.

President Young has superintended the days business, himself generally taking an active part in the ceremonies . . .

Perfect peace, harmony and good feeling prevailed through the day.

About 10 o clock most of the brethren and sisters retired home except the following who slept in the Temple over night, viz. Wm. W. Phelps, Erastus Snow, David Candland, Henry G. Sherwood, Benjamin S. Clapp, Henry Herriman and Aaron Johnson.

After the brethren had mostley left the Room, W. W. Phelps draughted the following to be observed in this House under the dictation of the President.


Rule 1st. No person allowed to enter these apartments without changing or cleansing shoes in the Vestry.

Rule 2nd. No person allowed to wear his hat or cap, while in these rooms.

Rule 3rd. No person allowed to enter further than the reception or washing and anointing rooms till he or she has been washed and anointed.

Rule 4th. No person allowed to pass from one room to another while receiving the ordinances without being conducted by a superintendant.

Rules for those who have received the ordinances.

Rule 1st. No person allowed in the rooms without an invitation while in the hours of labor, excepting at the hour of prayer.

Rule 2nd. All persons who are invited are requested to remain in their rooms during the hours of labor.

Rule 3rd. At the ringing of the bell, all walking about, and loud talking, must cease.

Rule 4th. No person allowed to remove things from one room to another without permission of the owner, and to be returned immediately when done with.

[December 14, 1845. Sunday.]…Soon after 11 o clock those who were present were ordered by the president to clothe themselves, which being done and seated at 20 minutes after 11 o clock, sang, “Adam Ondi Ahman” &c. After which we bowed before the Lord and President Young offered up prayers. We next sang “Glorious things of thee are spoken” &c. When bread and wine having been provided by Bishop N. K. Whitney Elders Isaac Morley and Charles C. Rich were called upon to administer the sacrament. They broke the bread which was then blessed by Isaac Morley and passed round by Charles C. Rich, who also blessed the wine and passed it round likewise.

We then sang, “O happy souls who pray” &c. and “Come all ye sons of Zion.” After which President Young introduced the subject of having rules of order to govern all who come here and to regulate our works, printed. He wished to know the minds of the quorum whether they thought it best. It was voted unanimously that we think it wisdom to have some rules printed for that purpose.

It was also unanimously voted that President Young introduce the rules.

He then explained that he had some rules draughted last evening, but they were now at the office to be printed ready for tomorrow, he however explained the majority of them explaining also the order he wished carried out, and then took a vote whether this quorum will sustain him in this regulation.

The vote was unanimous in the affirmative.

He then observed that he should henceforth have all the cloth, which was intended for robes, garments and aprons, brought and either cut or made in this Temple under the superintendance of those who know how to do it right. There are now scarcely two Aprons alike nor two garments cut or marked right, and it is necessary to observe perfect order in this thing and it never can be done unless we take this course.19

A conversation then ensued on the distinction of office or power, between a president of Seventies, and a member of the High Council or a High Priest. It arose in consequence of some of the High Council having been washed and anointed by some of the presidents of Seventies and inasmuch as there had been some considerable difference in the views of the brethern in regard to the difference of authority between the High Council and Seventies, President Young concluded it would be wisdom to have the subject understood at this early stage of business so as to prevent any feelings or dispute arising on the subject hereafter.

He stated that the Seventies are ordained Apostles, and when they go forth into the ministry, they are sent with power to build up the Kingdom in all the world, and consequently they have power to ordain High Priests, and also to ordain and organize a High Council.

Some of the High Priests have been ready to quarrel on the subject, supposing they had power and authority above the Seventies, and some in their zeal for power, have abused and trampled on the feelings of some of the Seventies.

There is too much covetousness in the Church and too much disposition amongst the brethren to seek after power and has been from the beginning, but this feeling is diminishing and the brethren begin to know better. In consequence of such feelings Joseph left the people in the dark on many subjects of importance and they still remain in the dark. We have got to rid such principles from our hearts.

He then referred to the manner in which the corner stones of this Temple were laid as published in the Times and Seasons and then stated that the perfect order would have been for the presidency of the Stake to lay the first or South East corner. The High Council the 2nd or South West corner. The Bishops the North West corner and the priests the North East corner, but added the High Priests laid the South West corner, but they had no right to do it.

He then introduced the subject of the brethren making objections to any person being permitted to receive the ordinances, and added that when objections were made he should feel bound to determine whether the person making the objections was a responsible person, if he was not he should do as he pleased about listening to the objections, but if he was a responsible person he should then listen to the objections.

To make a man a responsible man he must have the power and ability not only to save himself but to save others, but there are those who are not capable of saving themselves and will have to be saved if they are saved at all by those who are capable of doing it. An objection from such would have no weight on his mind.

When a man objects to another receiving the ordinances, he becomes responsible to answer to God for that mans salvation. And who knows but if he received the ordinances he would be saved, but if we refuse to give him the means he cannot be saved and we are responsible for it.

There is no law to prevent any man from obtaining all the blessings of the priesthood if he will walk according to the commandments, pay his tithes and seek after salvation, but he may deprive himself of them.

After much important instruction from the president the signs of the Holy Priesthood were offered up and prayers, Elder Orson Hyde being mouth after which the company were dismissed till next Sunday with strict orders to be here and dressed precisely at 11 o clock.

At 2 o clock P.M. agreeable to appointment nearly all those new members who have received the ordinances the past week assembled in the upper department to receive instructions in regard to the ordinances and their duty to be observed henceforth and forever.

At the same hour President Young, H. C. Kimball, P. Pratt, O. Pratt, O. Hyde, J. Taylor, G. A. Smith, A. Lyman, N. K. Whitney, G. Miller, W. W. Phelps, Wm. Clayton and P[hineas] H. Young retired into President Youngs Room. The President appointed W. W. Phelps and P. P. Pratt to instruct the brethren and sisters now waiting, which was done and much good instruction given by them. They were especially instructed more fully into the nature and importance of the blessings and powers of the Holy Priesthood which they have received, and it was enjoined upon them not to talk out of doors, but to be wise and prudent in all things.

They were also informed that no one will be admitted into these rooms during the time we are to work except those who are called to assist, unless they are invited by those who have authority.

At a quarter to 5 they were dismissed by blessing from Elder Taylor.

At the same time this was going on those who were in President Youngs room were listening to a number of letters which were read together with the report of the trial of J. B. Backenstos as published in the Peoria Register.

About 5 o clock nearly all the company having left the house President Young and others of the Twelve went down to the lower story of the Temple to council together on the arrangements of the Pulpits. The following persons remained and slept in the Temple over night, viz. President Young, A[lbert] P. Rockwood, J[ohn] D. Lee and David Candland.

[December 15, 1845. Monday.] At 5 minutes to 9 o clock A.M. commenced washing and anointing . . .

At a quarter to 10 o clock the president called the brethren together who had Volunteered to assist in administering the ordinances this day and made the following appointments, Amasa Lyman, Orson Hyde, George A. Smith, Lucius N. Scovil, Erastus Snow and Franklin D. Richards to administer in the upper and middle department, W. W. Phelps to officiate as the tempter. Also Joseph Young and Jedediah M. Grant to anoint the seventies. Samuel Bent and Isaac Morley to anoint the members of the High Council and High Priests. Benjamin L. Clapp and Henry Herriman to wash the members of seventies. And Charles C. Rich and Phineas H. Young to wash the members of the High Council and High Priests, John D. Lee and David Candland as clerks and to attend to fires in the rooms and upper apartment &c. Aaron Johnson, Benjamin L. Clapp, Elijah Averett and Henry Herriman to attend to fires in the washing rooms, also heating and carrying in water and assisting when needed in the washings.

At a quarter to 11 o clock the bell was rung and commenced receiving those washed and anointed this morning through the lower and middle departments, the following persons officiating, viz. In the upper department John Taylor as Number 1 Amasa Lyman as number 2 Erastus Snow as number 3. In the middle department. Orson Hyde as number 1 Franklin D. Richards as number 2 Lucius N. Scovil as Number 3 W. W. Phelps as number 4 And George A. Smith as prompter . . .

About half after 8 o clock the president made a selection of men to assist in the ordinances tomorrow and also a list of brethren to be here on Wednesday to receive their endowment.

At 20 minutes to 10 President B. Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, Amasa Lyman, George Miller, George A. Smith, John D. Lee and Franklin D. Richards retired to President Young’s room being clothed and having offered up the signs of the Holy Priesthood offered up prayers President Young being mouth. At 5 minutes after 10 o clock they dismissed part retiring to their homes and the following tarried and slept in the rooms viz. Wm. W. Phelps, Wm. L. Cutler, Elisha Averett, Hans C. Hanson, Peter O. Hanson, Franklin D. Richards, Joseph Young, Jane Young, Agnes M. Smith and David Candland.

As on the days previous the most perfect harmony and good feeling prevailed. President Young superintended and directed all the movements of the day also selected those who should come on Wednesday assisted by Elder Kimball.

The names of those selected to work tomorrow are as follows. P. P. Pratt, O. Pratt, J. Taylor, O. Hyde, A. Lyman, G. A. Smith, O. Spencer, L. N. Scovil, F. D. Richards and Aaron Johnson for the upper department. W. W. Phelps as Tempter. P. H. Young and C. C. Rich to wash the High Priests, S. Bent and J. Murdock to anoint the High Priests, B. L. Clapp and H. Herriman to wash the seventies; J. Young and J. M. Grant to anoint the Seventies, Elijah Averett, Jesse D. Hunter and H. Stout to carry in water and keep fires in wash rooms Elisha Averett door keeper and D. Candland and J. D. Lee clerks &c.

[December 16, 1845. Tuesday.] 8 o clock being the hour appointed for meeting President Young, H. C. Kimball, George A. Smith and some others were here at the time appointed the morning being very fine but cold.

At a quarter after 8 o clock A.M. commenced washing…At 9 o clock President Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, Amasa Lyman retired to President Youngs Room, and without dressing consecrated and dedicated a new horn which has been prepared for the anointing, praying that we may be permitted to use it for this purpose for many years to come and that the spirit and power of God may attend it whenever it shall be used.

At 20 minutes after 10 o clock A.M. President Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, George Miller, Amasa Lyman and George A. Smith clothed themselves and retired to President Youngs room and consecrated 13 bottles of Oil which had been prepared and perfumed by Bishops Whitney and Miller. After consecrating the Oil a letter which had been written by Elder Hyde was dedicated to God with prayer that the desired object may be accomplished by it.20 At half after 10 they got through and undressed . . .

During the day the 29th quorum of Seventies brought in 44 bottles of Oil for the anointing which was delivered into the care of Bishop Whitney.

President Young has been very busy through the day, dictating the order of business, appointing men to work in the various offices and giving much important and beneficial instruction, at different intervals, in connection with Elder H. C. Kimball who has also taken a very active part in conducting matters . . .

Sisters Whitney and Kimball have been very busy through the day overseeing the washings and anointings in the female department, and instructing the Sisters in cutting and making robes and garments.21

President Young retired at 5 minutes past 7, and Elder Kimball at 17 M[inutes] past 7.

[December 17, 1845. Wednesday.] At 35 m[inutes] past 7, President B. Young came in, and at 9, appointed each man his particular duty for the day.

At 9, commenced washing . . .

At 20 minutes past 2 o clock P.M. Bishop Miller perfumed 45 Bottles of Oil after which the following brethren, viz. Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith, W. W. Phelps, and Joseph Young clothed themselves and retired to Elder Kimballs room, where after offering up the signs of the Holy Priesthood they dedicated and consecrated the whole for the anointing in the following order, viz: the first 6 Bottles, Elder H. C. Kimball being mouth 2d 6 Bottles Elder Orson Pratt being mouth 3d 6 bottles G. A. Smith mouth, 4th 6 bottles W. W. Phelps mouth 5th 6 bottles Elder Amasa Lyman Mouth 6th 6 bottles Elder Joseph Young mouth 7th 6 bottles H. C. Kimball mouth remaining 3 bottles Elder Orson Pratt mouth, after which they consecrated 2 Bottles to the healing of the sick. They then offered up prayers for the sick and other subjects, according to our daily custom, Geo. A. Smith being mouth, at 3 o clock they undressed . . .

About 6 o dock, P.M. President Young selected the following persons to work on Thursday and notified them to be present . . .

He also selected a list of names of persons to be present on Friday to receive their washing and anointing; and put the list into the hands of John Pack to give notice to the individuals. About 20 minutes past 10, about 16 or 18 persons assembled in the east room and sung a hymn, and joined in prayer with President Young. He slept in the Temple, also his son Joseph and 10 or 12 other persons.

[December 18, 1845. Thursday.] At 14 minutes past 9 o clock commenced washing and anointing . . .

At a quarter past 6 o clock President Young left the Temple for the purpose of going a short distance to marry a couple.

The Weather this day has been very cold, it being very difficult to keep comfortably warm in the Temple the wind blowing very strong from the North . . .

At 6 o clock a report came to President Young that Theodore Turley had arrived in town, being liberated on bail of 250 dollars for his appearance at court next term, provided a bill of indictment should be found, report brought by Henry W. Miller . . .

The exercises of the day being over, President Young retired to bed about 12 o clock.

In consequence of the great pressure of business during the week past it has been decided to devote Saturday to the purpose of washing the robes and other garments, which had been used in the business of initiating those who had come in through the vail, but there being a general desire in the minds of all those who had officiated in the ordinances particularly the Sisters, that the work should not cease, it was afterwards determined that the clothes should be washed this night, and it was accordingly done, by the labors of several sisters, taking up the greater part of the night.

[December 19, 1845. Friday.] President Young having slept in the Temple was present at the appointed time for commencing preparations, and soon afterwards proceeded to appoint men to the various stations . . .

President Young left the Temple a short time at 12 min[utes] past 11, in company with Bishop George Miller, and Reuben Miller, the latter intending to return to his home in the Eastern part of the State on special business. He soon after took his departure . . .

At 7 o clock the following persons met in Elder Kimball’s room, clothed in priestly garments, and offered up thanks to our Heavenly Father for the deliverance of Theodore Turley and others, that were in bondage by our enemies.

At 20 minutes before 8 the following persons met in council in Elder Kimballs room and made a selection of High Priests to be washed and anointed, viz. B. Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith and George Miller. President Young asked the question, Is it wisdom to send Hosea Stout and Jesse D. Hunter to England? Elder Hyde answered that the people in Eng[land] expected that any one sent from America would be expected to be something more than ordinary. The subject was dropped at this point.

[December 20, 1845. Saturday.] President Young having slept in the Temple last night, was early at his post, and dictating in relation to the business of the day, and arranging the workmen in order &c. &c. after which he listened to a reading from Captain Fremont’s Journal22 by Franklin D. Richards…The morning was a very beautiful one, the sun shining clear and bright, through the east window of the room in which the party were assembled. President Young’s son Joseph was present also having slept with his father. Amasa Lyman came in during the reading, also Elder H. C. Kimball, at a quarter to 10. The reading was finished at 10 o clock, at which time Miss Eliza R. Snow handed in a list of the females washed this morning, which lists she has taken for several days past…President Young left the Temple about half past 4 o clock to be absent for the night.

At 5 o clock a meeting was held in Elder Kimball’s room, present H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith, John Taylor, W. W. Phelps and George Miller. Clothed in priestly apparel, they offered up thanks to God and asked for the health of Bishop Whitneys child, also Elder Kimball’s, and that God would away the wrath of this government from us and overrule all things for our good. Elder Kimball being mouth.

564 Persons have passed through, 95 this day.

[December 21, 1845. Sunday.] According to appointment on Sunday last, a meeting was held in the east room this day of all those who could clothe themselves in the garments of Priesthood, 75 persons were present, Elder H. C. Kimball presiding . . .

At 5 minutes before 11, the song “Glorious things of thee are Spoken” was sung. Father John Smith then made a few remarks, blessed the bread and it handed round by Bishop Geo. Miller, the Wine was blessed by Geo. Miller and handed round by him. While the wine was passing round, Elder George A. Smith arose and addressed the congregation. He thanked God for the privileges this day enjoyed and spoke of the difficulties under which the church had labored to attain the blessings we now enjoy. Another thing he thanked God for, already had more than 500 persons passed through, and therefore if half of them should be like the foolish virgins, and turn away from the truth, the principles of the Holy Priesthood, would be beyond the reach of mobs and all the assaults of the adversaries of the Church. Order was one of the laws of Heaven, then ought to be no whispering here, no difficulty ought to be mentioned, whatever transpires here ought not to be mentioned any where else.

When we pray to the Lord we ought to come together clad in proper garments and when we do so, and unite our hearts and hands together, and act as one mind, the Lord will hear us and will answer our prayers. Our garments should be properly marked and we should understand those marks and we should wear those garments continually, by night and by day, in prison or free and if the devils in hell cut us up, let them cut the garments to pieces also, if we have the garments upon us at all times we can at any time offer up the signs. He then related an instance of some children being healed and cured of the whooping cough in one night, through the prayers of himself and Elder Woodruff, in Michigan, while they were there on a mission. Said that whenever they could get an opportunity they retired to the wilderness or to an upper room, they did so and offered up the signs, and were always answered. It would be a good thing for us to put on our garments every day and pray to God, and in private circles, when we can do so with safety.

We are now different from what we were before we entered into this quorum. Speedy vengeance will now overtake the transgressor. When a man and his wife are united in feeling, and act in union, I believe they can hold their children by prayer and faith and will not be obliged to give them up to death until they are fourscore years old.

Sometimes mere trifles destroy the confidence which each ought to have in the other. This prevents a union of faith and feeling. The apostacy of Thomas B. Marsh was caused by so small a thing as a pint of strippings23 and his oaths brought the exterminating order which drove us all out of Missouri. The woman ought to be in subjection to the man, be careful to guard against loud laughter, against whispering, levity, talebearing. He expressed his unfeigned love for his brethren, and his confidence in their endeavors to keep these rules.

“The Spirit of God” was then sung.

Elder Kimball next addressed the meeting. He concurred in all that had been said, the observation of these things is most essential. About 4 years ago next May nine persons were admitted into the Holy order 5 are now living. B. Young W. Richards George Miller N. K. Whitney and H. C. Kimball two are dead, and two are worse than dead.24 You have not got all you will have if you are faithful and keep your tongue in your mouth. You are pronounced clean, but were you pronounced clean from the blood of this generation? No! not all of you, only some few who have deserved it. Females were not received when we first received the Holy order. Men apostatized, being led by their wives, if any such cases occur again, no more women will be admitted. He spoke of the Necessity of Women being in subjection to their husbands. I am subject to my God, my wife is in subjection to me and will reverence me in my place and I will make her happy. I do not want her to step forward and dictate to me any more than I dictate to President Young. In his absence I take his place according to his request. Shall we cease from loud laughter and mirth? Will you never slander your brother or sister? I will refer your minds to the covenants you have made by an observance of these things, you will have dreams and visions. In the coming week we will take through 100 a day, we want no man to come in here unless he is invited, or on business. Let those having cloth to make up send it here and we will make it up and put it to good use. Women should be appointed to attend to the washing and anointings of the High Priests wives. There is a large lot ahead. You are not yet ordained to any thing, but we have the clay here, it is mellow and we shall soon put it on the wheel.25 If any brother divulges any thing we shall cut him off. We shall not be with you long. We cannot rest day nor night until we put you in possession of the Priesthood. We want you now to make up garments for yourselves. I want my own robe back again. If we have made you clean every whit, now go to work and make others clean. We will have a screw put up before the vail, and will make an office of my room, and have a stairway leading down from it. No person will be allowed to take people through the vail but those appointed.

Let women wait upon women and let men wait upon men, then no jealousies will arise. He closed at 5 m[inutes] before one.

Elder P. P. Pratt approved of what had been said and said a few words about the fashion of our robes, his own robe, which was like those first used, was not sewed up at the sides, neither was it of more than one breadth.

Elder Kimball showed the right fashion for a leaf,26 spoke of Elder Richards being protected at Carthage Jail, having on the robe, while Joseph and Hyrum and Elder Taylor were shot to pieces, said the Twelve would have to leave shortly, for a charge of treason would be brought against them for swearing us to avenge the blood of the anointed ones, and some one would reveal it and we shall have to part some say between sundown and dark.27

George Miller said that when near the camp of Gen[eral] Hardin, he was shot at, and the Sentinel who was near him was killed, but he escaped unhurt, having on his garment. He then spoke of the design and purpose for which all the Symbols in the garden were given &c. Paul said he bore in his body the marks of the Lord Jesus Christ, which was as plainly as he dare allude to these things in writing. But the marks Paul alluded to were just such as we now have on our garments. He spoke of the signs, tokens and penalties28 and of the work in general, said it was the work of God, by which he designs to reinstitute man into his presence &c.

Elder John Taylor confirmed the saying that Joseph and Hyrum and himself were without their robes in the jail at Carthage, while Doctor Richards had his on, but corrected the idea that some had, that they had taken them off through fear. W. W. Phelps said Joseph told him one day about that time, that he had laid aside his garment on account of the hot weather.

Elder Kimball said word came to him and to all the Twelve about that time to lay aside their garments, and take them to pieces, or cut them up so that they could not be found.

The Sisters ought not to gather together in schools to pray unless their husbands, or some man be with them, every evening at 5 o clock the High Priests meet for prayer by themselves. Clothed in their robes of Priesthood. Also the High Council and the Seventies.

There are from seven to twelve persons who have met together every day to pray ever since Joseph’s death, and this people have been sustained upon this principle. Here is brother [Theodore] Turley has been liberated by the power of God and not of man, and I have covenanted, and never will rest nor my posterity after me until those men who killed Joseph and Hyrum have been wiped out of the earth.

Elder [Reynolds] Cahoon had permission to speak at 20 m[inutes] past one. He bore testimony of the importance of those things which had been spoken. He rejoiced in the idea that the things he was taught in the beginning, were the same things now taught and remembered, and it is so because they are eternal things.

The whole assembly were then formed into 2 circles one within the other, the signs and tokens were given, the proper attitude for prayer assumed, and Elder Taylor being mouth, the whole congregation united with him in prayer to God, at 10 minutes past 2 the meeting was dismissed and all unclothed themselves of their robes and another congregation which had been waiting in the vestibule of the temple was admitted into the east room, not being clothed in the garments of Priesthood.

At 3 o clock sung Hosanna. Prayer by Elder Orson Hyde, after which by invitation of Elder Kimball who presided (President Young not having been at the Temple today, and the duty of presiding having devolved upon Elder Kimball as the next in succession) Amasa Lyman, addressed the assembly. He said Doubtless with the most of the present assembly it is the beginning of a new era, in their lives, they have come to a time they never saw before. They have come to the commencement of a knowledge of things, and it is necessary they should be riveted on their minds, one important thing to be understood is this, that those portions of the priesthood which you have received are all essential matters, it is not merely that you may see these things, but it is matter of fact, a matter that has to do directly with your salvation, for which you have talked and labored many years. It is not for amusement you are brought to receive these things, but to put you in possession of the means of salvation and be brought into a proper relationship to God. Hence a man becomes responsible for his own conduct, and that of his wife, if he has one. It is not designed that the things that are presented today should be forgotten tomorrow, but remembered and practiced through all coming life. Hence it is a stepstone to approach to the favor of God. Having descended to the lowest state of degradation, it is the beginning of a homeward journey. It is like a man lost in a wilderness and the means with which we are invested here are to direct us in our homeward journey. You then see the reason why you are required to put away your vain ties, cease to talk of all those things which are not conducive to eternal life.

This is why you are required to be sober, to be honest, that you could ask and receive, knock and it should be opened, and that when you sought for things you would find them. It is putting you in possession of those keys by which you can ask for things you need and obtain them. This is the Key by which to obtain all the glory and felicity of eternal life. It is the key by which you approach God. No impression which you receive here should be lost. It was to rivet the recollection of the tokens and covenants in your memory like a nail in a sure place,29 never to be forgotten.

The scenery through which you have passed is actually laying before you a picture or map by which you are to travel through life, and obtain an entrance into the celestial kingdom hereafter. If you are tempted in regard to these things here, you will be tempted when you approach the presence of God hereafter. You have, by being faithful been brought to this point, by maintaining the things which have been entrusted to you. This is a representation of the Celestial Kingdom. It is not merely for the sake of talking over these things that they are given to you, but for your benefit, and for your triumph over the powers of darkness hereafter.

We want the man to remember that he has covenanted to keep the law of God, and the Woman to obey her husband and if you keep your covenants you will not be guilty of transgressions. The line that is drawn is for you to maintain your covenants and you will always be found in the path of obedience, after that which is virtuous and holy and good and will never be swallowed up by unhallowed feelings and passions.

If you are found worthy and maintain your integrity, and do not run away and think you have got all your endowment you will be found worthy after a while, which will make you honorable with God. You have not yet been ordained to any thing, but will be by and by. You have received these things, because of your compliance with all the requisitions of the law, and if faithful you will receive more.30

You have now learned how to pray. You have been taught how to approach God and be recognized. This is the principle by which the Church has been kept together, and not the power of arms. A few individuals have asked for your preservation, and their prayers have been heard, and it is this which has preserved you from being scattered to the four winds.

Those who have learned to approach God and receive these blessings, are they better than you? The difference is, they have been permitted to have these things revealed unto them. The principles which have been opened to you are the things which ought to occupy your attention all your lives. They are not second to any thing. You have the key by which if you are faithful, you will claim on you and on your posterity, all the blessings of the Priesthood.

Elder H. C. Kimball said, The ideas advanced by brother Lyman are good and true. We have been taken as it were from the earth, and have travelled until we have entered the Celestial Kingdom and what is it for, it is to personify Adam. And you discover that our God is like one of us,31 for he created us in his own image. Every man that ever came upon this earth, or any other earth will take the course we have taken. Another thing, it is to bring us to an organization, and just as quick as we can get into that order and government, we have the Celestial Kingdom here. You have got to honor and reverence your brethren, for if you do not you never can honor God. The man was created, and God gave him dominion over the whole earth, but he saw that he never could multiply, and replenish the earth, without a woman. And he made one and gave her to him. He did not make the man for the woman; but the woman for the man, and it is just as unlawful for you to rise up and rebel against your husband, as it would be for man to rebel against God.

When the man came to the vail, God gave the key word to the man, and the man gave it to the woman. But if a man dont use a woman well and take good care of her, God will take her away from him, and give her to another.32

Perfect order and consistency makes Heaven but we are now deranged, and the tail has become the head.

We have now come to this place, and all your former covenants are of no account, and here is the place where we have to enter into a new covenant, and be sealed, and have it recorded. One reason why we bring our wives with us, is, that they make a covenant with us to keep these things sacred. You have been anointed to be kings and priests, but you have not been ordained to it yet, and you have got to get it by being faithful. You can’t sin so cheap now as you could before you came to this order. It is not for you to reproach the Lord’s anointed nor to speak evil of him. You have covenanted not to do it.

One other thing. You all want to get garments, and you need not wait to get fine linen or bleached cotton for your garments. Shirting or sheeting will do for garments. The women can cut theirs from the cuts on their husbands. We dont want you to come here and take up the time to cut your garments. Go to a good faithful sister, and secret yourselves, and make your garments. We have been crowded too much and we have got to stop it. And if you have cloth, and come here to get your cloth cut, we shall keep it here to make use of it till we get through. We dont want one person that has come into the order the week past, to come into this room during the coming week except those who are to work. If you want any thing let it come in writing.

Elder George A. Smith made a few remarks. He spoke principally in relation to the importance of keeping sacred those Signs and tokens and principles which we had received while passing along through the different degrees.

He was followed by Elder Orson Hyde who said a few words in approbation of what had been said by Elder Smith and followed up in the same matters.

The congregation was dismissed by prayer by Elder John Taylor, and soon departed from the Temple to their respective homes.

At 5 o clock P.M. the following High Priests met for prayer, clothed in their Priestly Garments, viz: Geo. Miller, Winslow Farr, Lucien Woodworth, William Crosby, Cornelius P. Lott.

David Sessions, Gilbert D. Gouldsmith and Elam Ludington volunteered to draw water from the river in barrels for the use of the Temple.

Elder Kimball spoke of the confusion which had been in the house hitherto. None will be permitted to stand at the vail but the one that may be appointed by the President. You have been washed and pronounced clean, but not from the blood of this generation.

[December 22, 1845. Monday.] This week has been assigned principally to the High Priests, for them to come in and receive their washings and anointing. President George Miller was early at the Temple making preparations for the day’s work. President B. Young was at the temple, having slept there the last night. Each department and station having been filled by appointment of President Miller, at 17 minutes before 9, commenced in the male department washing and anointing . . .

At 5 o clock the following High Priests met in room No. 8 viz; President George Miller, William Snow, John M. Bernhisel, Simeon Carter, Lucien Woodworth, Daniel Spencer, Erastus Snow, Winslow Farr, William Felshaw, Stephen Markham, and F[ranklin] D. Richards Lucien Woodworth being mouth.

At 8 o clock P.M., President Brigham Young, John Taylor, Amasa Lyman, Geo[rge] A. Smith, Orson Hyde, Lucien Woodworth and George Miller met in President Young’s room and consecrated thirty seven bottles of oil which had been prepared by Bishop Miller, for the purpose of anointing those who are prepared by washing.

At Twelve o clock P.M. all retired except President B. Young, H. C. Kimball, Amasa Lyman, John D. Lee, Lewis Robbins, David Candland, Theodore Turley, H[ans] C. Hanson, Peter Hanson, H[enry] G. Sherwood; these slept in the Temple.

At 10 o clock commenced receiving into the upper department company No. 4. Joseph Young being prompter. They were received in the following order . . .

Ended at 15 min[utes] past 11.

[December 23, 1845. Tuesday.] The dry house of Gen[eral] Charles C. Rich’s emigrating company No. 13 was burnt to the ground early this morning and about 300 dollars worth of spokes, felloes and other timber consumed. It was situated near the Seminary building formerly the Arsenal. Gen. Rich came to the Temple and reported himself ready for the duties of the day, but on account of the accident above mentioned was excused for the day.

The High Council met this morning in room No. 4 for prayer, being clothed in the garments and Robes of Priesthood. They offered up prayer and thanksgiving to God . . .

At 5 minutes past one, Almon W. Babbitt entered the Temple, was invited by President Young into his room. He brings report that officers from Springfield are here and several of the State troops after some of the Twelve, particularly Amasa Lyman . . .

At 3 o clock John Scott informed George D. Grant that an officer and assistants were watching for President Young and others at the front door of the Temple. Brother Grant carried the information to President Young, who soon devised a scheme by which their intentions to carry him off might be frustrated.

He directed William Miller who was present at the time, to put on Elder Kimball’s cloak, and go down with Geo. D. Grant to his carriage, at the door. They accordingly went down, and as Mr. Miller was about to get into the carriage, with Elder Grant, the officer and 5 or 6 of his assistants arrested him, supposing it to be President B. Young. They were about to drive away with him, having made their boasts that they would get as many of the Twelve as they could, take them down to Warsaw, and have a new Years frolic killing them, but were persuaded to drive to the Nauvoo Mansion and tarry until tomorrow morning when the validity of the writ would be tested.

They were kept in profound ignorance of their mistake all the time. Esquire Babbitt takes the legal management of the case, and when they have stopped long enough to make a good tavern bill they will probably get their eyes open and put off…

Esquire Babbitt came in at 5 o clock and reports that the Officer who arrested Wm. Miller (supposing it to be President Young) has left the city, and gone to Carthage, with the prisoner, continuing ignorant of his mistake. Mr. Edmonds, a partner of Mr. Babbitts, has gone with them to act as counsel for the prisoner. The Officer has writs for B. Young, P. P. Pratt, H. C. Kimball, John Taylor, Geo. A. Smith, Amasa Lyman and T[heodore] Turley who are all charged with counterfeiting the coin of the United States with President Young . . .

At half past 7 o clock P.M. the following persons met in President B. Young’s room clothed in sacerdotal garments and offered up thanks to God for his preserving care over them, in delivering them from all the snares of their enemies, and prayers that he would continue to do so. Their names are Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor, Orson Hyde, George A. Smith, Amasa Lyman, and George Miller. Orson Hyde being mouth.

At 20 minutes past 8 o clock, President Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, P. P. Pratt, George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman left the Temple, nearly at the same time, disguised with other mens Hats and Coats. The reason of this is that their enemies are seeking their lives charging them with high crimes &c . . .

Besides the persons whose names appear in the record of the proceedings of this day there are many others who have been very efficient in forwarding the work, and have attended at the Temple not only to-day but several previous days. There is much labor to be done in keeping the utensils and garments in order.

Some of the names are as follows, viz; Cherizade Averett, Jane Sherwood, Mary Ann Turley, Priscilla Turley, Cynthia Durfee, Alcina Durfee, Amanda Rogers. Henry Herriman takes the names and ages of the men, who are washed and anointed. Miss Eliza R. Snow takes the names of the women. John D. Lee, David Candland and L[ucien] R. Foster act as Clerks. Brother Hanson has been sewing tent cloth to-day.

A Staircase has this day been put up by which we can pass out through Elder Kimball’s room No. 3, which has been converted into an office, for the convenience of transacting business with persons from without.

[December 24, 1845. Wednesday.] At half past 6 o clock, the High Council met for prayer in the attic story of the Temple room No. 4, the following persons present: Samuel Bent, Alpheus Cutler, James Allred, Geo. W. Harris, Newel Knight, Thomas Grover, Charles C. Rich, David Fullmer, Aaron Johnson and Ezra T. Benson. And being clothed in the Robes of Priesthood, offered up prayers to God for our prosperity, the preservation of the Twelve, for means to remove from this place, for the welfare of all the honest in heart, our wives and children &c &c Alpheus Cutler being mouth . . .

At 20 minutes past 12, William Miller who was arrested yesterday, came into the Temple, having been liberated from arrest at Carthage last evening, when they found out that he was not Brigham Young. He was not ill treated . . .

At 5 o clock P.M. President Young came in, and shortly after George A. Smith, Amasa Lyman and Orson Hyde came in, intending to meet for prayer, but not meeting with others whom they expected, several persons being at the same time in prayer in another room they retired in a few minutes . . .

All the Twelve have been absent from the Temple the greater part of this day except Orson Pratt, who has spent the greater part of the day here.

In the evening President Brigham Young, Elder H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Amasa Lyman and George A. Smith came in, but did not remain long. They soon retired, but at about 20 minutes past eleven, President Young and H. C. Kimball came in and remained the rest of the night. The labors of this day have been very arduous 122 persons having been washed and anointed and received into the upper department. It was expected that troops would be in, with officers and writs, for the purpose of arresting the Twelve, who are mostly charged with counterfeiting the current coin of the United States, but no signs of troops, writs or officers have appeared to molest our peace. The day has been moderately cold, and in the evening a light flurry of snow.

Sister Huldah Duncan, whose name is among those who were washed and anointed did not go through the vail being obliged to turn back on account of the illness of her little child. See account of persons passed through January 20th.

[December 25, 1845. Thursday.] Present President Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, George Miller and others who were here yesterday, with some others. The morning is fine, the sun shining clear and bright upon the light covering of snow which fell last night . . .

At a quarter past 12 o clock George D. Grant brings word that the United States Marshall is in the city again. Elder Kimball sent a message to him by Elder Grant, and at 15 minutes before one, Elders Young and Kimball left the Temple . . .

At 5 o clock, President Young came into the Temple and remained about an hour overseeing and directing in relation to business generally . . .

At 20 minutes before 6 came into the Temple Amasa Lyman, and George A. Smith, Orson Hyde, John Taylor. At 10 minutes past 6, P. P. Pratt and Orson Pratt, and at 18 minutes past 6 President Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball came in.

At 20 minutes before 7 the Twelve met in President B. Young’s room, which is No. 1 for prayer and council. The following persons present, President Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, John Taylor, Orson Pratt, Amasa Lyman and George A. Smith. After considerable conversation about the western country they united in prayer, and offered up the signs and tokens of the Holy Priesthood, Geo. A. Smith being mouth, and afterwards laid hands on President Geo. Miller, who was in ill health. Closed at 8 o clock.

The High Council met for prayer at 6 o clock, in room No. 4. Present, C[harles] C. Rich, Thomas Grover, Samuel Bent, Newel Knight, George W. Harris, David Fullmer, James Allred, Ezra T. Benson and H[enry] G. Sherwood. Prayed for the prosperity and deliverance of the Twelve, and of the whole church &c.

The High Priests met in room No. 8 at 6 o clock, for prayer, present, Freeman Nickerson, Stephen Markham, W[illiam] Felshaw, Winslow Farr, Joseph B. Noble, L[ucius] N. Scovil, Charles Allen, A[braham] O. Smoot, Willard Snow, William Snow, Erastus Snow, Joseph W. Johnson, and F[ranklin] D. Richards. Stephen Markham was mouth . . .

At 20 minutes before nine it was announced to the recorder by Elder Kimball that the Twelve had decided in council, that George D. Watt should be sent to Scotland to preach the Gospel, and take his family with him . . .

All the above mentioned persons have taken part in the business of the day, more or less, the females, many of them have been cutting out garments and sewing on them, for the use of those who are to receive their washing and anointing.

The business of the day closed at about 20 minutes past 10 o clock, notice was given that no more washings and anointings would be attended to at present. President Young and H. C. Kimball, with some few others, remained in the temple all night.

[December 26, 1845. Friday.] No persons having been notified to appear to day to receive their washings and anointings very few persons were present in the morning. President Young and H. C. Kimball were present also Orson Pratt, no others of the Twelve, a few of those who had officiated in the washing and anointing and as door keepers, fireman, Marshall clerks, and so forth, and several of the women were present; those were all called together in the east room at about 11 1/2 o clock, and addressed by President Young. He told them there would be no business done to day, and that they were all dismissed, except the two Brother Hansons, Lewis Robbins and Brother Averett, whom he wanted for door keepers and John L. Butler for fireman. Also Sisters M[ercy] R. Thompson and Eliza R. Snow whom he wanted to do some sewing. We shall have no more washings and anointings at present, and if the brethren do not get any thing more than they have already got, they have got all they have worked for in building this house, and if there is any more to be received it is because the Lord is merciful and gracious. We shall not have any business done, except that the High Council and the High Priests will meet together once a day as usual for prayer. They will come in the back way, through the office door. Room No. 4 belongs to the High Council, No. 6 to the High Priests, No. 8 to the High Priests. No. 10 to the Elders. President Young asked President Miller how many High Priests had been washed and anointed. President Miller could not tell at the moment, but directed the clerk of the High Priests quorum to ascertain. The number was found to be 268.

President Young said when he began again he should pay no respect to quorums. Every man that comes in is washed and anointed by good men and it makes no difference. Every man that gets his endowment, whether he is High Priest or Seventy, may go into any part of the world and build up the kingdom if he has the keys, or on to any island. We have been ordained to the Melchisedeck Priesthood, which is the highest order of Priesthood, and it has many branches or offices. And those who have come in here and have received their washing and anointing will be ordained Kings and Priests, and will then have received the fullness of the Priesthood, all that can be given on earth, for Brother Joseph said he had given us all that could be given to man on the earth.

I feel disposed to rest a few days, and let the Temple rest, and when I commence work again I am going to make a selection of my hands, and shall select those that will stay all the time. We will have no more cooking and eating going on in those rooms. No person will be allowed to come in unless they are invited, and I shall take it as an insult if they come and stay. I felt it impressed upon me to rest a few days and make these regulations, and as we have run out of oil we can’t do much any way. I shall not have any more cutting and sewing of garments going on in the Temple. I shall have houses selected where garments can be cut and made. It is my right to receive persons through the vail, and it does not belong to any one else unless I put him there. When persons come into this house and receive the tokens, and signs and the key words, they have got all they have worked for in building this house. President Young closed his remarks as the Temple Bell rung for noon.

All those who were not retained for door keepers, clerks &c. then departed and the rooms were cleared of those things with which they had been cumbered.33

There was a necessity for a reformation of this sort, for some men were doing things which ought not to be done in the Temple of the Lord. Some three or four men and perhaps more, had introduced women into the Temple, not their wives, and were living in the side rooms, cooking, sleeping, tending babies, and toying with their women. The men who were guilty of these things were H. G. Sherwood, B. L. Clapp, L. N. Scovil, and perhaps others. There was also a great many men introduced and passed through the ordinances who were not so deserving as some that were passed by. There were also many women and children passed through who were not well entitled to the ordinances, while none of the sons and daughters of the Twelve had been permitted to enter.

There were also many persons lounging about, who had no particular duty to attend to, but who thought they had a right to be present, because they had once passed through the Vail. There was also a number of men taking their stations at the vail without permission of the President; considering it their right to receive through the vail any female whom they might introduce into the washing and anointing room, while it is evidently the sole prerogative of the President to officiate at that place or any one that he may authorize to do so. Inasmuch as while there, the person stands in the place of the great Eloheim.

At a quarter past 3 P.M. President Young and George Miller confirmed by the laying on of hands Robert B. Barnes and Norman Barnes who had been baptized this day.

At about 6 o clock in the evening, the Twelve, the High Council, the High Priests, and the Presidents of Seventies met for prayer, each quorum in its own room.

At about half past 6 Sheriff Backenstos came to the Temple, was admitted to the office, Room No. 3, by the back Stairs, had a conference with President Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, John Taylor, Amasa Lyman, and George A. Smith. He gave an account of the occurrences at Carthage, when William Miller arrived there, said the United States Deputy Marshall was in town with writs for the Twelve and President Geo. Miller. He remained about half an hour and retired.

President Young and H. C. Kimball left the Temple at 8 o clock and did not return again during the night. Sisters Snow and Thompson have been sewing and Sisters Barns, Margaret Moon and Sophronia M. Harmon have been washing garments in the evening.

[December 27, 1845. Saturday.] This morning was a very pleasant one, being moderately cold, and the Sun Shining clear and bright in the heavens. None of the Twelve present at the Temple except Orson Pratt.

At 15 minutes past 10 o clock the United States Deputy Marshall, from Springfield, by the name of Roberts, came to the Temple in company with Almon W. Babbitt. He was freely admitted to every part of the Temple, to which he desired access. He went into the tower, on the roof, and into the Attic Story, passed through the various departments into the east room, where he very intently examined the portraits, and made enquiries as to whose they were, severally but obtained no correct information on the subject. He was requested to take off his boots in the preparation room, which request he complied with.

After remaining about half an hour he departed. At about 2 o clock he returned in company with Sheriff Backenstos, and a gentleman whom the Marshall introduced as from New Orleans. They visited the Middle room and the tower, and departed after about half an hour.

Doctor Bernhisel came in at about One o clock, and borrowed the “New York Sun” of Dec. 9th, 1845, which contains a letter said to have been written by Emma Smith, to the Editor.34

Brother Candland has been so fortunate as to find at Lathrops store this morning, some crimson Damask cloth,35 and some fringe for covering the new Altar that is to be used in the further ordinances of the Temple.36

Sisters Mercy R. Thompson and Eliza R. Snow are engaged in preparing the covering. Sister Barns is engaged in ironing the garments that were washed last night. Lewis Robbins is cleansing and putting in order the washing Rooms and apparatus, Hans C. Hanson is sewing tent cloth together. Peter Hanson is translating the Book of Mormon into the Danish language. Ellishal Averett is door keeper, J[ohn] L. Butler, Fireman. David Candland and L[ucien] R. Foster, as Clerks. Orson Pratt has been engaged in making Astronomical calculations. From several observations, he makes the latitude of Nauvoo to be 40.35′ 48″.

In the evening several of the Twelve came in, viz; President Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, P. P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Amasa Lyman, and George A. Smith, these met for prayer in President Younges room at 15 minutes before 7 o clock. Bishop Whitney was with them also. All were clothed in priestly garments. Elder John Taylor came in just as they were commencing their exercises, and without having clothed himself united with them in prayer. Elder Kimball being mouth. Elder Orson Hyde came in after they had finished, and was asked by President Young what made him always so late. He replied that the officers had been watching his house. The High Council met in room No. 4 at 6 o clock . . .

Prayed for President Brigham Young and all the Twelve, that they might be preserved from their enemies, that all the faithful Saints may be permitted to receive all the ordinances of the Lord’s house, that the Lord will bless all the different quorums, for Father Smith and wife, for sister Isabella Smith and child, and Eliphalet Rogers, for the High Council, their wives and children, for means to enable us to remove from this place, also for the restoration to health of Sister Slade and brother Lish . . .

After the meeting was over in the room of President Young, Bishop N. K. Whitney counted out Two hundred dollars, which came in as tithing from Brother [] through the hands of Elder Orson Pratt.

A general conversation ensued, in which President B. Young, and all the Twelve above mentioned, and Bishops Whitney and Miller, L[ucien] Woodworth, J[edediah] M. Grant and one or two others took part. The visit of the Marshall and California were the prominent topics. Elder P. P. Pratt read from Hastings’ Book . . .37

President Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith, N. K. Whitney and a few others remained in the Temple all night.

[December 28, 1845. Sunday.] Meeting at half past 10 o clock this day in the attic Story of the Temple, for those who could clothe themselves in the garments of Priesthood. A very large congregation was present, the side rooms were some of them filled, the curtain was withdrawn and the other rooms besides the east room were filled. About 200 persons were present, clothed in priestly garments. President Young addressed the meeting, it having been opened by prayer by P. P. Pratt, and singing the songs of Zion, “The morning breaks the shadows flee” and “Come to me” &c. President Young came into the room at 1/4 before 12 M.38 He said he supposed those present were a part of those who had received their endowment, that they were those who desired to be wise and do honor to the cause they have espoused, and bring no reproach upon the character of him who has given us of the things of his Kingdom liberally. The keys or signs of the Priesthood are for the purpose of impressing on the mind the order of the Creation. In the first place the name of the man is given, a new name, Adam, signifying the first man, or Eve, the first Woman. Adam’s name was more ancient than he was. It was the name of a man long before him, who enjoyed the Priesthood.39 The new name should be after some ancient man. Thus with your ancient name, your modern name and the name that was last given you, you enquire concerning things past present and future.

After his fall, another name was given to Adam, and being full of integrity, and not disposed to follow the woman nor listen to her was permitted to receive the tokens of the priesthood.

I wish you to cease talking about what you see and hear in this place. No man or woman has a right to mention a work of the appearance of this building in the least; nor to give the signs and tokens except when assembled together, according to the order of the Priesthood, which is in an upper room. There are not a dozen persons that can give the signs and tokens correct, and the reason is that person would run to that vail, one of the most sacred places on the face of the earth, that had not understood the right manner of giving the signs and tokens.

The order and ordinances passed through here prove the principles taught in the Bible. First men should love their God supremely. Woman will never get back, unless she follows the man back, if the man had followed the woman he would have followed her down until this time. Light, liberty and happiness will never shine upon men until they learn these principles. The man must love his God and the woman must love her husband. The love which David and Jonathan had for each other was the love of the priesthood. God is a personage of tabernacle, the Son is a personage of tabernacle, the Spirit or Holy Ghost is also a personage, but not a personage of tabernacle, but is a personage of Spirit. God dwells in eternal burnings puts his hand through the vail and writes on the wall.40 Any persons that goes through these ordinances, unless they cleanse their hearts and sanctify themselves, and sanctify the Lord, it will damn them. When we begin again I shall select those that are worthy. We shall not be able to have another public meeting here on account of the weight on the floor, it has already caused the walls to crack, prevents the doors from shutting, and will injure the roof. I see here 200 persons, all clothed in their garments, and tomorrow I suppose we cannot find half enough to work with, unless we lay an embargo on your garments, and forbid any of you carrying away your garments. When we began we could dress a company of 30. Now we cannot dress 18. For my right arm I would not say that every body is honest, for I do not believe they are.

The names of those who would volunteer to furnish a suit of garments, to be used by those who were yet to go through the ordinances was then taken…32 in all, each of these agreed to furnish one suit of garments for Temple use.

It was decided that when the High Priests were washed and anointed they should find the oil, and the lights, and the Seventies do the same when they occupied the rooms, and the wood is to supplied as follows; 1000 men, or as many as can be obtained, to go to the islands and cut wood, and teams to go and draw it to the Temple until 1000 cords have been obtained.

Sung the hymn “Glorious things of thee are spoken”. Prayer by Amasa Lyman asking a blessing on the bread. Bread passed round by Charles C. Rich and George Miller. Blessing on the wine asked by P. P. Pratt. While the wine was passing, sung the hymn Adam Ondi Ahman.

Elder H. C. Kimball cautioned the brethren and sisters against telling that the Twelve were in the Temple. P. P. Pratt said a few words to the same point.

Elder Kimball moved that no man tell his wife what he has seen. President Young said “all that are in favor of this signify it by holding your tongues when you go away from here.” P. P. Pratt, “Contrary mind by the same sign.”

Elder Kimball continued his remarks, alluded to the stories in circulation that several persons had been killed on their way through the ordinances, and that men and women were stripped naked here. Joseph said that for men and women to hold their tongues, was their Salvation.

A circle was formed, composed of about 20 persons, most of whom had received the ordinances, and been admitted to the first quorum at a previous time. They united in prayer. Elder John Taylor being mouth. A hymn was sung, being led by [] Goddard, [William?] Kay and [Reynolds] Cahoon, notice was given that no more meetings would be held in the Attic story, for the present, and the congregation dismissed after prayer by Elder Orson Hyde.

The people soon retired from the Temple and no other meeting was held . . .

Three of the Dragoons stationed at Carthage came in with a man named Noah Miles, whom they wished to deliver up to the proper officers. He was charged with swindling several persons out of their property, such as horses and a waggon, pistol &c &c. They brought a letter from Major Warren, the commanding officer, the tenor of which was as above, the letter is on file among President Young’s papers. This occurred just at dark, President Brigham Young and his wife and child, Elder H. C. Kimball and his wife and child, and several other persons remained in the temple over night.

The High Council met for Prayer at the usual time, about 6 o clock. President Isaac Morley, David Fullmer, William Huntington, James Allred, Alpheus Cutler, George W. Harris, Aaron Johnson, Thomas Grover, Ezra T. Benson and Newel Knight. Prayed for the health of H. G. Sherwood, Wm. Huntington, James Allred’s wife, and a boy in his family, and for all the sick among the saints. For President B. Young, that he might have wisdom, and bodily and mental strength, and be able to lead his people.

[December 29, 1845. Monday.]…The carpets were taken up to some extent and shook, and the floors swept, stoves blacked, trees and shrubbery arranged in the garden, and a general arrangement of matters attended to in the morning. Sisters Thompson and Snow engaged on the drapery and cushions for the new Altar, Sisters Moon and Harmon sewing garments, Sisters Kimball, Young, Cutler and Cahoon, engaged in arranging the Furniture &c. in the east room.

Several men presented themselves at the dwelling of President George Miller this morning, some came in the house and enquired for him while others remained outside. It was suspected they were after him with a writ, and although President Miller was present and before them all the time no one knew him, neither did any of the brethren, several of whom were present seem to know where he was, and the suspicious individuals soon left.

At 2 o clock word was brought that a company of Soldiers were in, from Carthage. Brother Willmer B. Benson, clerk in the office of Doctor Willard Richards, the General Church Recorder and Historian brought in a book for revision, it being part of the Church History.41 Elders George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman attended to the revision. Half past 2 o clock P.M. President Young, H. C. Kimball and President George Miller have been listening to Elder P. P. Pratt, who has been reading from Captain Fremont’s narrative of a journey to California.

At 15 minutes past 3 o clock P.M. Noah Rogers, just arrived from his mission to the Society Islands, in the South Pacific ocean came in to the office, room No. 3 of the Attic Story of the Temple. He brought with him a Mr. Tower, a fellow passenger on board ship, whom he baptized. He brings a favorable report of the progress of the gospel on those islands. He came on foot from Paducah,42 on the Ohio River.

The soldiers above mentioned proved to be 4: Dragoons. They came up the hill, went around by the east end and north side of the Temple, out of the yard by the north gate, and drew up in front of the house of President Geo. Miller. They made some enquiries of the women at the door and after a few moments passed on . . .

At 10 minutes before 6, President Young ordered the lights taken out of the stair case, as the troops were endeavoring to get into the Temple. It was soon after ascertained to be a false alarm. They were searching for hogs said to have been stolen from Mr. Hibbard . . .

The Twelve met for prayer in President Young’s Room No. 1 at about half past 10 P.M. Present President B. Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, Amasa Lyman, John Taylor, and George A. Smith. They were dressed in their garments of Priesthood, as were all the others who have met this evening. They prayed for deliverance from their enemies and that they might be spared to give all the faithful Saints their endowment, that they might be clothed with the power and have the keys of Priesthood. Orson Hyde was mouth.

After prayer was over, P. P. Pratt, G. A. Smith, John Taylor and Orson Hyde went home, Amasa Lyman laid down on a sofa. President Young and Elder Kimball went into the Tower and on to the roof of the Temple spent half an hour, and returned. And President Young spent near an hour reading Capt. Fremont’s Narrative, after which he retired for the night.

[December 30, 1845. Tuesday.] The morning was pleasant, and at an early hour a very large number were at the Temple waiting for the washing and anointing, they having been notified the day before to attend at an early hour . . .

At half past 9 o clock, 18 bottles of oil which had been prepared with perfume, were consecrated for the anointing in President Young’s room, the following persons of the quorum of the Twelve being present, and clothed according to the Holy Order, viz; President Brigham Young, Elders H. C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Amasa Lyman and George A. Smith, also President Joseph Young of the Seventies. President B. Young was mouth, for the first 12, and George A. Smith for the other Six . . .

At 10 minutes before 11, John M. Bernhisel brought in a suit of garments for the use of the persons receiving their endowments. Robe. Garment. Apron. Cap. Moccasins and Socks . . .

At half past 11, Almon W. Babbitt came in and reported that the Marshall had left Carthage for Springfield, and there would be no more danger from Writs . . .

At 4 o clock, President Brigham Young left the Temple and was gone until 25 minutes past 5 o clock.

Bishop Whitney has been engaged in arranging some business matters with Aimon W. Babbitt Esquire as counsel for the Lawrence Estate.

Bishop George Miller has been in the Temple all day, considering it unsafe for him to be out much on account of the writ said to be out for him.

P. P. Pratt has been engaged part of the time in forming a schedule for a pioneer company of 1000 men, to preceed the body of emigrants, find a proper location and put in seed early in the summer . . .

The labors of the day having been brought to a close at so early an hour viz; half past 8, it was thought proper to have a little season of recreation, accordingly, Brother Hans Hanson was invited to produce his violin. He did so, and played several lively airs, among the rest some very good lively dancing tunes. This was too much for the gravity of Brother Joseph Young, who indulged in a hornpipe, and was soon joined by several others, and before the dance was over several French fours were indulged in. The first was opened by President B. Young with Sister Whitney and Elder H. C. Kimball with Sister Lewis. The spirit of dancing increased until the whole floor was covered with dancers. After this had continued about an hour, several excellent songs were sung, in which several of the brethren and sisters joined. The Upper California was sung by Erastus Snow. After which Sister Whitney being invited by President Young, stood up and invoking the gift of tongues, sung one of the most beautiful songs in tongues, that ever was heard. The interpretation was given by her husband, Bishop Whitney, it related to our efforts to build this House, and to the privilege we now have of meeting together in it, of our departure shortly to the country of the Lamanites, and their rejoicing when they hear the gospel, and of the ingathering of Israel. Altogether, it was one of the most touching and beautiful exhibition

s of the power of the Spirit in the gift of tongues which was ever seen. (So it appeared to the writer of this.) After a little conversation of a general nature, the exercises of the evening were closed by prayer by President B. Young, and soon after most of the persons present left the Temple for their homes . . .

They united in prayer, for the preservation of President Brigham Young and his Council from all their enemies, for the protection of the Church of God from all our enemies, and that our enemies might be frustrated in all their plans, for all the sick in the Church, especially Brigham Willard Kimball, Sisters Hyrum Smith and Huldah Nickerson, Brother Scotts two children and Brother Daniels and Andrew Smith, for means for our removal, for the blessing of God upon all our possessions &c &c.

[December 31, 1845. Wednesday.] The morning cloudy and the ground soft and muddy . . .

President Young and myself are superintending the operations of the day, examining maps with reference to selecting a location for the Saints west of the Rocky Mountains and reading the various works which have been written and published by travellers in those regions, also making selections of names of persons to come in and receive their endowments . . .

[Due to the length of the diary entries, the footnotes have not been included in this excerpt. See a hardcopy of the book for details.]