excerpt – In the President’s Office

L. John Nuttall, July 6, 1888, Washington, D.C. Courtesy L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young UniversityIntroduction

Leonard John Nuttall (1834-1905) began keeping a diary in December 1876, a few days before the dedication of the St. George temple in southern Utah. he joined a throng of other Latter-day Saints for this much anticipated event, traveling from his home in Kanab, a small Mormon community east of St. George, where he presided over the local congregation. However, Nuttall’s involvement would be unique in that he had been asked to assist LDS President Brigham Young and Apostle Wilford Woodruff as a temple recorder and in writing out “the Ceremony of the [temple] Endowments from Beginning to End,” to which he would dedicate himself for three full months.1 His diary during this period contains fascinating accounts of issues surrounding the temple and his attendance at private meetings of church officials.

Fortunately for readers today, Nuttall took up the pen just as he embarked upon what would prove a long career as secretary to the highest ranking leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. His association with Brigham Young was brief, but for nearly thirteen years beginning in June 1879, he occupied a privileged position as private secretary and confidant to Presidents John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff. Like William Clayton, personal secretary to Joseph Smith during the early 1840s,2 Nuttall enjoyed a rarefied perspective. He traveled extensively with the church presidents, attended hundreds of council meetings and worship services, handled private correspondence, and overheard conversations—many of which are recorded in his diaries. Where other accounts exist, Nuttall’s is often the most telling. His personal connection to the administrative inner-workings of the LDS Church elevate his diary to one of the most significant of late nineteenth-century Mormondom.

Family, Community, Church, and Health

Before discussing the diaries themselves, I will highlight the major events in “L. John’s” life. He was born July 6, 1834, in Liverpool, England, to William Nuttall and Mary Langhorn.3 LDS Apostle John Taylor was his uncle and introduced the Nuttall family to Mormonism in 1850. The oldest son, William, was baptized first, and a month later on October 8, 1850, father and mother and their two remaining sons followed suit. In March 1852 the converts started for Utah aboard the 815-ton ship Rockaway in company with Taylor, twenty-five other church members, and newly acquired equipment for the Deseret Manufacturing Company’s sugar industry.4 Six months later, the Nuttalls reached their destination and established a home in Provo, forty miles south of Salt Lake City.

Over the next twenty-five years, L. John was active in civic and military affairs. He served as adjutant of Company C Infantry of the Provo Militia during the 1857 Utah War, one of some 150 men ordered to fortify Echo Canyon to ward off U. S. Colonel Sidney Johnson’s advancing army. In 1866, Colonel Nuttall led a division of seventy-five men in the First Regiment, First Brigade, Second Division of the Nauvoo Legion, or Utah Territorial Militia, during Utah’s Black Hawk War. In civic affairs, he was a member of the Provo City Council, alderman, and justice of the peace. he also held clerical positions: recorder and auditor, probate and county clerk, and chief clerk of the territorial legislative council.

Exactly where he developed the skill and propensity for office work is unclear since the details of his early education are sketchy. He attended St. Brides School in Liverpool until he was thirteen and a half, when he turned to his father’s trade of shipbuilding. Still, early records hint at his clerical abilities. The minutes of the Provo City Council between 1861 and 1872 are in Nuttall’s hand, and he kept the account of the Provo Military District, including some of his experiences during the Utah War. Of an eleven-man company sent to explore Uinta Valley in September 1861, he was the only member of the expedition to maintain a written record.5 Unfortunately, he developed the habit of documenting daily events too late for us to know much about his youth.

LDS church obligations occupied much his energy as an adult. A proselytizing mission to Great Britain n 1874-75 began a long-time association with such church men as Francis M. Lyman, John Henry Smith, and Joseph F. Smith, all of whom would later become prominent in the church’s leading councils. Upon Nuttall’s return from England, Brigham Young called him as bishop of the remote southern Utah settlement of Kanab. Two years later he was named president of the Kanab Stake. In the latter capacity, he oversaw the communal economies, known as United Orders, of Kanab and Orderville and was in other ways a major player in community development in those areas.6

Much of his tenure as stake president transpired in absentia since he had become known to the church leadership, who thought to call him in October 1877 to help audit the accounts of the church’s trustee-in-trust, unravel the tangle of church property from Brigham Young’s estate, and put in order the church’s financial records. The call came from John Taylor, who was president of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles and de facto church president at the time. Nuttall worked at these tasks in Salt Lake City until the controversy over the Young estate seemed to have subsided in Mya 1878. However, a year later church authorities once again summoned him to Salt Lake City to resume working on church accounts. This time he would remain permanently, replacing George Reynolds as Taylor’s private secretary because Reynolds had been arrested under the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.

Life in Salt Lake City proved to be disruptive for Nuttall, who enjoyed Taylor’s confidence but, as he expressed in his diaries, “did not want to be called to move back to this part of the Territory, preferring my home at Kanab.” His first wife—English convert Elizabeth Clarkson, whom he had married on Christmas Day 1856—remained with their children in Kanab; Sophia Taylor, his plural wife since 1875, resided in Salt Lake City. Nuttall longed to rejoin his family and see his friends, but he evidently was only able to return to Kanab on two occasions before he was released as stake president—once in November 1881 while traveling with Taylor and then in September 1883 to arrange matters within the stake and mediate some disputes involving people who wanted to withdraw from the United Order at Orderville.7 When it became clear that Nuttall was to remain as secretary to the church president and his duties as stake president could not easily be attended to while he remained in Salt Lake City, Taylor released him as stake president in 1884. Most of Nuttall’s family soon relocated to Provo.

Other circumstances also kept him away from his families. Like other polygamists, Nuttall had to slip into hiding or risk being convicted of unlawful cohabitation under the Edmunds Act (1882). He generally lived in concealment between 1885 and 1891, but afterward was free to go about his business. His diaries indicate that once in November 1888, he saw through his office window two of hiss children walking outside, but for fear of being arrested he did nothing. “They have not seen me for over a year,” he wrote. “This is some of the liberty guaranteed to me by this great magnanimous Nation, my own children not permitted to behold my face.” Three months later he considered it significant that the anniversary of George Washington’s birthday “was my first day to walk out in the day time for over four years” (Nov. 11, 1888; Feb. 22, 1889).

Long hours in the office, especially while in hiding, were detrimental to Nuttall’s spirits. He also suffered various health problems much of his adult life. Consider the remedies he applied to cure a rash on his face: sour cream; “Tincture of Iron” mixed in buttermilk; the inside bark of a willow stem in sweet cream; and stewed cranberries. He tried painting his face “to stop the progress of the disease.” To help clear his stomach, he once drank a dose of “Hipo Sulphatic” and “about a wine glass full” of squeezed carrot juice. Despite such remedies, he found little relief during an especially difficult and painful three-month period in 1890.8

Periodic intervals of sickness and an aversion to the sedentary life of office work were almost unbearable at times. The First Presidency granted him the favor of releasing him twice, 1887-88 and 1890, in order to assist Utah’s delegate to Congress, John T. Caine, in Washington, D. C. In all, Nuttall spent a total of nearly twenty months in the east. In 1892, the First Presidency asked him to look after the legal interests of the church’s Relief Society, which also gave him welcome time away from the office, as did his appointment to the board of the Deseret Sunday School Union. Even after he was released as the First Presidency’s secretary, he continued to work with them. On April 1, 1897, when President Wilford Woodruff’s abdominal distress worsened, Nuttall stepped in to act as his personal attendant, waiting on his needs, shaving him, keeping his journal, attending to some office duties, and accompanying him on his travels.9

In addition to church assignments, Nuttall was active in civic and business affairs. As a representative year, in 1883 he was elected a director of the Salt Lake City Railway, Deseret Telegraph Company, and Zion’s Savings Bank & Trust. He became a regent of the University of Deseret in 1880, Territorial Superintendent of District Schools in 1881, and incorporator and stockholder of the Deseret News Company in 1889.

Nuttall died at the age of seventy on February 23, 1905, in Salt Lake City. He was survived by his wife Sophia and twelve of eighteen children.10

THE DIARIES

Most of Nuttall’s diaries and papers are located in the L. Tom Perry Special Collections at Brigham Young University, gifts of grandson Floyd K. Giles, whose parents were Joseph G. Giles and Clara Clarkston Nuttall. Other papers, including diaries and records related to his work for the First Presidency, are held by the LDS Church. While selected portions of the diaries have appeared in print before,11 this is the first reliable transcript of the handwritten originals.

The diaries at BYU consist of twenty-eight bound notebooks. There are chronological gaps in the diaries, which suggests the possible existence of additional notebooks. But if others exist, their whereabouts remain unknown.

Diary 1 is composed of burned and charred loose sheets in protective plastic coverings. It includes entries describing Nuttall’s military experiences in the Utah War, Uinta Valley exploration, and Black Hawk War, with dates spanning 1857-58, 1861, 1866, and 1868. The diary includes several pages of biographical notes, dates, and lists of expenses.

Diary 2 is a tan leather address book measuring 5 ½ x 3 ½ inches, with entries from December 28, 1876, to August 24, 1877. All 112 pages are filled, and miscellaneous notes appear on the inside front and back covers.

Diary 3 has a red cover with gold lining and measures 6 ½ x 4 inches. It begins where Diary 2 leaves off, continuing to August 8, 1878, filling all 150 pages. The front cover has “L. J. Nuttall” written on it. Genealogical and various other notes are written near the front and back pages and on the inside covers.

Diary 4 measures 6 x 3 3/4 inches, has a black cover, and includes the period from late 1878 to mid-1879. The front inside cover reads: “The book and contents belong to L. John Nuttall.”

There is an unnumbered diary with entries from September 10 to November 3, 1878, which measures 6 3/4 x 3 1/2 inches and has a dark red cover. Only about two-thirds of the pages are filled. On the inside front cover, “L. John Nuttall his Book” has been written in pen, and the inside cover has random notes in pencil; the second to last page contains a list of expenses.

Diary 5 is a red book measuring 7 1/2 x 5 1/4 inches. Of 240 pages, only 118 are filled, with entries running from June 19 to December 16, 1879. “Records” is engraved in gold on the front, and the front and back covers have gold lining. The inside cover contains notes and dates. The diary includes some loose sheets which appear to have been meant as additions and therefore have been included in this volume.

The next five diaries are identical in color and size–light tan leather, measuring 6 1/2 x 4 inches. The only difference is that Diary 9 has thirty-six pages while the others have forty-eight. Diary 6, beginning July 29, 1881, and ending September 25, 1881, has forty-three of forty-five pages filled with daily entries, the last five pages devoted to notes and travel expenses. “L. John Nuttall Salt Lake City, Utah”appears on the front cover. A portion of the diary was written in purple pencil.

Diary 7 covers October 27 to November 14, 1881, and all forty-eight pages are filled. There are also various notes on the inside front and back covers. The entries were rendered in purple pencil, with some markings in lead pencil including a large X crossing out each page.

Diary 8 continues from the last entry of the previous diary through December 18,1881. Forty-one of forty-eight pages are filled; the last two pages and inside front and back covers contain notes. Both purple and lead pencils were used. As with Diary 7, each page has been crossed out; in addition, portions of various entries were circled in pencil.

Diary 9 has entries for February 3-6, 1882, and May 4-8, 1883. Twenty of the thirty-six pages were written on, with sundry notes on the final pages. The writing is in both purple and lead pencil; all pages have been crossed out.

Diary 10, which covers August 4 to September 2, 1882, utilizes forty-two of forty-eight pages, the final two pages devoted to travel expenses. It is mostly written in purple pencil, with some lead, and all pages have been crossed out in a blue pencil or crayon.

The next six diaries are similar to the previous group except that most are eighty pages long and the inside covers are red. Diary 11 contains entries for July, August, and September 1883 and for February and March 1884. It is filled up to page sixty-five, and after a gap of eleven pages has notes on the construction of the Logan temple and lists of expenses. All entries are in purple pencil, then crossed out in lead pencil.

Diary 12 has fewer total pages—fifty-two, of which twenty-three are devoted to entries for September 3-27, 1883, and March 4, 12, 1884. The final two pages contain a record of expenses for travels to Sanpete County and other miscellaneous notes.

Diary 13 from October and November 1883, October-December 1884, and January 1885 begins with nine pages of illustrations and notes regarding the Bullion, Beck and Champion mine, followed by forty-five pages of daily entries, then five pages of notes and travel itineraries. The entries are written in purple or lead pencil.

Diary 14—November 1883, April-May 1884—has entries up to page sixty-one, with the usual notes and travel expenses on the last four pages and inside back cover. All writing is in purple pencil and all delete marks are in lead.

Diary 15 is filled to page seventy-three with entries from May and June 1884 and a final two pages with notes and travel expenses. Most of it is written in purple pencil, and most pages are crossed out.

For Diary 16, which covers July and August 1884, only about half the pages are filled; the final five pages have notes, itineraries, miles traveled, and expenses. Mostly purple pencil was used, and then crossed out in lead.

Diary 17 has a light green cover with a dark red binding and measures 8 1/2 x 4 1/4 inches. It begins on June 24, 1887, continuing to the death of John Taylor on July 25,1887. There are 104 total sheets (208 pages), with daily entries to page 115. All pages are written in black ink, with lead pencil additions such as entries that are circled, relating to Nuttall’s personal life.

Diary 18, dark red, measures 6 1/2 x 4 inches and is the longest at 398 pages, all filled, beginning where Diary 17 left off and continuing to May 2, 1889. In addition, several more pages are attached to include a newspaper article and a poem about life in the penitentiary. The entries are in ink. The front cover reads: “Record.”

Diary 19 has a dark red cover and measures 5 1/4 x 3 1/4 inches. The entries are for late November 1887, early 1888 (February, March, April), and late September 1888 for a total of 120 pages, written almost entirely in lead pencil. Various notes are recorded on the inside covers, and the final thirteen pages contain lists of expenses. The contents were transferred to (repeated in) Diary 18.

The subsequent four diaries are all of a similar color and size, each in a dark red binding with the word “Record” inscribed in gold. Diary 20 measures 7 3/4 x 5 inches and contains 224 pages, all filled. The entries, from May 3, 1889, to February 24, 1890, are in ink.

Diary 21 continues where the previous diary ended and concludes on March 27, 1891. The inside front cover reads, “This book belongs to L .John Nuttall.” All 224 pages are filled.

Diary 22 contains 240 pages, all filled, continuing from the previous diary to July 6, 1892. The inside front cover reads, “This book belongs to L. John Nuttall April 1891.”

Diary 23 has slightly larger dimensions (8 3/4 x 5 1/2 inches) but has the same number of pages, only 112 of which are filled. It continues from the previous diary to April 25,1893, where it abruptly stops, after which Nuttall remained silent for several months. As was his custom, he wrote on the inside front cover that the book belonged to him, along with the date.

The next three diaries were written in Zion’s Savings Bank and Trust Company notebooks, the first being 5 1/2 x 2 3/4 and the second two 5 3/4 x 3 inches. Of thirty or so available pages in Diary 24, all were used, encompassing December 18, 1893, to February 2, 1894. Diary 25 spans the period from July 28, 1899, to April 28, 1900; only about half the pages are filled. Diary 26 has entries for April 22 to July 4, 1901, on the first thirty of sixty-six pages. The inside front and back covers contain various notes.

Diary 27 measures 6 3/4 x 4 1/4 inches, has the word “Record” engraved in gold on its red cover, and entails the period from January 1, 1903, to August 19, 1904. All 176 pages are filled. The inside front cover reads, “L. John Nuttall January 1st 1903.”

Collectively, the twenty-eight diaries constitute a rich cache of personal writings. With so much to choose from, and space limitations inherent in a one-volume distillation, the present work is restricted to a single period in Nuttall’s life when he was serving as secretary to the presidents of the LDS Church. Entries of significance falling outside of this particular time frame were not considered for inclusion, an example being the oft-cited entry of February 7, 1877, regarding Brigham Young’s remarks on temple worship in Nauvoo, Illinois.12 Such entries are available to the public elsewhere as secondary sources where historians have cited them. In addition to this volume’s emphasis on entries bearing on LDS institutional history, I have tried to include a sampling of Nuttall’s personal affairs from the same period so readers can form an impression about his personality and private life. I have therefore included a selection of his references to family issues, personal financial transactions, weather observations, and letters, telegraphs, and other ephemera.

IN THE PRESIDENT’S OFFICE

It would be difficult to overstate the importance of Nuttall’s diaries for understanding the activities of the First Presidency in the late nineteenth century. Their office stood at the administrative crossroads of the church; virtually any matter requiring approval of the president and counselors passed through their secretaries’ hands. Nuttall spent most of his time on seemingly endless rounds of office tasks, writing letters, signing documents, recording minutes of meetings, making financial transactions, entertaining public luminaries, and on occasion signing temple recommends. Many of the concerns of the First Presidency’s office have to be gleaned from Nuttall’s record since the papers of the First Presidency are currently unavailable to most researchers. And of the secretaries who served in the office, only Nuttall kept a detailed daily journal.13

In tracking the church president and his two counselors, Nuttall faithfully recorded their attendance at public events and private gatherings with impressive attention to detail. For instance, his notes on the 1891 dedication of the Eagle Gate monument are characteristic where he mentioned that George Q. Cannon, first counselor to Wilford Woodruff, “closed the [cornerstone] box & put it in the cavity at 110 p.m. and at 113 p.m. the Stone was laid” (Oct. 5, 1891). Nuttall frequently indicated which meetings the president attended even if Nuttall himself was not present.

Customarily, the president’s secretary attended the regular meetings of the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve Apostles in the Gardo House and prayer meetings in the Council House. In administrative meetings, Nuttall normally indicated the names of those in attendance, the order of business, discussion of financial or business affairs, and other conversations. In some cases, the apostles were expected to speak in order of seniority, such as on April 5, 1889, when they decided to reorganize the First Presidency two years after the death of President John Taylor. In other meetings, they spoke in reverse order beginning with the most junior member, as on December 20, 1888. Nuttall included the content of many deliberations, for example the discussions leading to the dedication of the Logan temple in 1884. Usually Nuttall was forthcoming about such matters, but occasionally he excluded items he thought would be best kept confidential.

The diaries illuminate various aspects of Taylor’s leadership style and relationship to the Saints. It is clear that Taylor held the church’s founder, Joseph Smith, as an example against which other individuals and policies should be measured, frequently citing some aspect of Smith’s life and teachings. Taylor especially enjoyed meeting with the men who, like himself, had known Smith personally.14 Taylor was strong willed and demanding, according to anecdotes cited in the diaries. But there was also a warm and personable side to his character, as indicated by many displays of kind-heartedness, generosity, and compassion. In the midst of an emotionally charged legal battle over Brigham Young’s estate in 1879, Taylor admitted he had been “stiff and “unyielding” and asked his colleagues for forgiveness “if I have done any thing or said anything that has hurt any of your feelings.” When women who had been abused by their husbands came to him for advice or when the poor solicited aid, he offered sympathy, counsel, and financial assistance (Oct. 4, 1879; May 7, Nov. 20, 1883; Apr. 18, June 16, 1884).

A friend to native peoples of the Great Basin, Taylor also gave liberally to Bannock, Paiute, Shoshone, and Ute Indians and encouraged the Saints to reach out to them, “stay with them and instruct them” (May 6, 1883). He was especially generous in giving flour, medicine, and money to local tribes, and those who lived under church auspices received even more support. In return, the natives seemed to see him as a spiritual leader. When church leaders visited Chief Washakie in 1884, local Shoshones constructed a bowery and posted a banner on which was inscribed, “The Lamanites welcome their fathers” (Aug. 25, 1884).

Nuttall accompanied Taylor on such trips. Between 1881 and 1884, Nuttall’s diaries are almost entirely a travelogue: a dozen visits to Logan and outlying settlements in Cache and Bear Lake Counties, trips to settlements in southern Utah, a visit to the Sanpete area, one to southern Idaho, and day trips to Bountiful, Ogden, and Provo. Nuttall provides us with the precise itinerary, distances traveled, and meetings held. He recorded interesting incidents along the way. For instance, when the church president traveled by wagon from Ephraim to Wales in the Sanpete region, they encountered “Presbyterians” on the road who were hurrying to their own meeting in Wales. According to Nuttall, the Presbyterians “acted similarly as on the outward trip trying to pass & repass until they run into a slough which we avoided and drove to the station at Wales without any further annoyance, having had a splendid drive for 1 1/2 hours.” During another visit, this time to Bear Lake, Apostle George Q. Cannon and his companions caught a glimpse of “the Bear Lake Monster or something of that kind this evening while strolling along the lake” (Aug. 22, 1882; cf. Aug. 3, 1881).

The year 1884 was extremely noteworthy for travel. In April, Taylor’s party met with members of Zion’s Central Board of Trade in Cedar City, Utah, to try to breathe life into the nascent iron industry there. Despite extensive preparations and a positive report from the Iron Manufacturing Company of Utah, exploitation of iron and coal deposits had to be delayed due to the anti-polygamy agitation beginning in 1884. The next month, Taylor and a large party traveled north to Logan to dedicate the newly constructed temple. August found them in northern Utah and southern Idaho, logging 885 1/2 miles and forty-three meetings. In Paradise, located in the Cache Valley, the party attended funeral services for John H. Gibbs, who along with his missionary companion and two others had been shot in Tennessee on August 10, 1884.

During the heart of the federal “raid” from 1885 to 1887, Nuttall disappeared from sight onto the “Mormon underground,” along with Taylor, George Q. Cannon, Charles Wilckin, Charles Barrell, and others. According to Nuttall’s correspondence during this period, Taylor and company continued to keep busy. In a letter to Daniel H. Wells, Nuttall wrote that with the exception of attending public meetings and conversing in person, “there has not been one day from that time [Feb. 1, 1885] to the present but what we have been enabled to attend to general duties, just as much so as though we had been in the office.” He added that “the health of the President has been excellent and his spirits buoyant all the time. In fact we have all been first class all the time.”15 Significantly, Nuttall did not mention in his diary the rumored revelation Taylor was said to have received on September 26, 1886, or remarks Taylor is said to have made the next morning regarding the perpetuation of polygamy.16

Beginning in June 1887, one month prior to Taylor’s death, Nuttall documented the president’s slow physical decline, including mental fatigue and delirium. Nuttall took his turn attending to Taylor’s needs and helped provide day and night protection from federal arrest. The president resisted making his condition public for fear the news would inflame resentment among the Saints and for a time even refused to inform his plural wives, accept the care of a physician, or draft a will. But with each passing day, his strength waned so he could tolerate only an occasional spoonful of solid food and “a little wine and a glass of beer” (June 30, 1887).

On July 10 the president’s health took a “decided change for the worse,” followed by a short rebound and further deterioration. When Taylor’s second counselor, Joseph F. Smith, arrived on July 18, the first time the First Presidency had been together since December 1884, Taylor recognized him, commenting, “I feel to thank the Lord.” But usually Taylor lay unconscious, his limbs and tongue swollen, his mouth riddled with cankers, his body in a constant state of pain. He died of “dropsy” on the evening of July 25 at the Thomas Roueche farmhouse in Kaysville, Utah.

While Taylor’s health was failing, Nuttall worked alongside first counselor George Q. Cannon in a small room adjacent to the president’s bedroom, conducting church business, including correspondence. Nuttall’s diary is the best available source for these transactions and events in June and July 1887, and possibly on the transition to, and early years of, the Wilford Woodruff administration.17

Polygamists continued to live in hiding following Taylor’s death, but convictions for unlawful cohabitation decreased during the final years of the 1880s. Nuttall wrote on a positive note in 1889 that the authorities were enjoying more freedom to move about and visit the Saints. “The visits of the Presidency and Twelve among the people is doing much good, as the Saints are hungering and thirsting for the word of the Lord. They having been left alone so long. We hope,” he added, “that nothing will interfere so as to stop this good work.”18 He no longer accompanied the church president on travels but instead remained in the office engaged in other matters.

The intense conflicts that had erupted during the early polygamy raids did not cease during this period of rapprochement. In fact, one senses tension permeating the pages of the diaries, the rhetoric of division separating Mormons from “gentiles” everywhere manifest. What Nuttall provided was his own point of view on these conflicts—a perception that probably reflected the Saints’ views generally—showing he did not kindly regard non-Mormon politicians and others. These outsiders, according to Nuttall, were a blight on the religious, economic, political, and social well being of the Latter-day Saints. He used the term “enemy” to describe such people. Of the reappointment of territorial Chief Justice Charles S. Zane, considered by historians to have been a fair-minded judge, Nuttall saw only “bitter persecution, oppression, and a disregard for all applications for fair dealing” (May 26, 1889).19 Readers may detect Nuttall’s disgust over the celebration following the victory of the non-Mormon Liberal Party in Salt Lake City: “They made night hideous tonight with their gills, drums, tin pans, tin horns, cowbells, torch lights & fireworks &c, marching through the streets until after 1 oclock in the morning. While I was looking at them pass the house, one man aimed two Roman Candles at the house” (Aug. 5, 1889). If this reflected the general Mormon world view, it demonstrates just how alienated they were from the federal government and their gentile neighbors.

In an effort to curb what many Mormons perceived as persecution, LDS officials took steps to try to foster a positive image for the church. In the spring of 1889, President Woodruff urged the Saints “to do all in our power” to commemorate the centennial of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The following December the First Presidency appointed John Morgan and B. H. Roberts to “go East and to labor with the Press and in writing articles and getting them inserted in the leading newspapers setting forth our side of the present political question; also to meet with leading men & converse with them & do all the good that lays in their power” (Apr. 25, Dec. 17, 1889).

Nuttall himself was set apart to work in Washington, D.C., as secretary to John T. Caine, Utah territorial delegate, in pushing for statehood. Several of Nuttall’s doings in the East may be of interest—conversations with prominent national figures such as Grover Cleveland and attendance at various Christian churches. His record contains an account of the activities of Caine, John W. Young, Franklin S. Richards, and others who labored on behalf of the church in the nation’s capital. Unfortunately, some notable events are only briefly mentioned, including the official presentation to the U.S. Senate of the memorial for statehood and Franklin Richards’s testimony before a Senate subcommittee on the church’s sincerity in pledging to obey the law (Dec. 16, 1887; Jan. 10, Feb. 18, 1888).20

From Nuttall’s narrative, it is clear that, at least until the Manifesto of 1890, the church was unwilling to submit to pressure to abandon polygamy even though Washington, D.C., was telling the church that statehood depended on it. In December 1888, Nuttall learned that unnamed “friends in the East” were urging Joseph F. Smith to “openly renounce the practice of Polygamy in the future, and until the time comes when the Saints can again practice that principle of their religion unmolested.” Nuttall himself “did not see how such a thing could be done consistently with our covenants” and was relieved when the church authorities rejected the proposal, conceding not “even as much as a mess of potage for the relinquishment of our religion” (Dec. 17, 1888). He felt equal revulsion when John W. Young, a son and ex-counselor to Brigham Young, suggested the First Presidency state that no more plural marriages would be performed. Woodruff dictated his rejection in the form of a revelation, which Nuttall recorded in his diary along with his personal reaction to it.21 Nuttall’s diary is thus important for understanding the deliberations that led to the Woodruff Manifesto.

The process of accommodating national expectations was complicated by the fact that the church authorities themselves could not agree on a course of action. Nuttall could be reflective, on occasion, in recording the tensions and disagreements expressed in the highest councils of the church. He expressed frustration over one particular discussion over the possible reorganization of the First Presidency: “I was not at all satisfied with the spirit manifest at the meeting. Bros. [Moses] Thatcher & [Heber J.] Grant seem to want the church conducted on a money basis. While returning to the Gardo [House], Prest Woodruff said to me, he would about as soon attend a funeral as one of our council meetings” (Feb. 27, 1889).22 Some disagreements were major, some minor, but most were eventually settled.

Finally, Nuttall’s diaries help track LDS finances. Mention of salaries, financial transactions, and stocks and dividends pepper the text. It sheds light on the nature of church involvement in various businesses. For instance, Nuttall was an observer when the First Presidency resigned as directors of Saltair Beach Company and when it was decided to form the Deseret and Salt Lake Agricultural and Manufacturing Canal Company (July 1, 16, Nov. 26, Dec. 10, 1889; Oct. 22, 1891). He and the church president attended the Salt Lake Literary and Scientific Association’s meeting when it was decided to transfer “all the property of the Association to the Church University” (Aug. 17, 1892). In another meeting, “the question of selling a part of the Land adjoining the Deseret News Building also of organizing the Deseret News Company into a private company & selling the church interest therein was talked over but not decided” (Dec. 5, 1890). The diaries illuminate connections between the church and the Inland Salt Company, Zion’s Savings Bank and Trust, Utah Sugar Company, and Bullion, Beck, and Champion Mining Company, to name a few.

Typically routine tasks comprise the greater part of any person’s diary, and this is the case here. Yet, included in the seemingly mundane life of a clerk is a remarkable array of people, places, and events.23 Although Nuttall was not prone to emotional self-evaluation, there is an advantage to his clerk-like dedication to a matter-of-fact report as if he were a detached observer, allowing the content to be “dictated by time itself, the inexorable progress of days lived one by one.”24

Readers should bear in mind that the diaries were written by a religious man who was loyal to the cause to which he devoted his life. His had an unshaken belief in the veracity of Mormonism. By virtue of his position as secretary, he concerned himself largely with the temporal affairs of the church. In these matters, he worked with his colleagues in a business-like manner, but he also called upon God frequently for guidance and blessings and to express gratitude. His view of his own life was that of a spiritual undertaking.

Finally, this is a chronicle that reflects Nuttall’s time and place, even while portraying the breadth of nineteenth-century Mormonism. In taking us from the center of the church and territory to the people and circumstances in the hinterlands, Nuttall provides a valuable lens through which to view the region emerging in the modem era and the tension and conflict through which the church in particular struggled, reconciling the past and present amid the changing realities. There were many who resisted the social, economic, and political developments, while others, whether in the territory’s capital or in the most remote areas, embraced them. Taken together, these responses to the challenges of modernity reveal the late nineteenth century as a pivotal period in Latter-day Saint history.

A full century has passed since Nuttall’s death, and so the legacy of his productive life may not be as apparent as it once was.25 Publication of his extraordinary diaries will help to remedy this. His chronicles merit a prominent place in studying the history of a region and era, with other important sources and excellent studies that have preceded their release. They will certainly contribute a vital piece of the puzzle in understanding the character and complexity of the LDS people during this time period.

EDITORIAL APPROACH

I have tried to follow as consistently as possible the following editorial guidelines:

1. Original spelling and punctuation are generally retained. 26 Some tilde marks and superfluous commas, periods, dashes, and quotation marks are omitted for readability. Where deemed necessary, punctuation may be silently inserted, including commas in series and for readability and terminal punctuation.27 Spacing between initials of individuals is silently added. Proper nouns are capitalized, as is the first letter of the first word in a sentence. All other corrections, insertions, and editorial extensions are enclosed in square brackets.

2. Nuttall often abbreviated words such as “Atty Geni” for attorney general and “Bp” for bishop. Where the meaning is clear, the abbreviation is usually left as is.28

3. Blanks, omissions, or illegible words are noted as [illegible], [blank], etc.

4. Some idiosyncrasies of Nuttall’s handwriting and presentation, including doodles, could not be duplicated.

5. Interlinear material, whether added above a line, below, or to the side, is indicated by a caret ^at the beginning and end ^ of the insertion.

6. Subscripts and superscripts are changed, as in 3rd to 3rd. Time indications are standardized to “a.m.”, “p.m.”, and “m.” for noon. Nuttall’s variations of abbreviating the word “President” are standardized to “Prest” for singular and “Prests” for plural.

7. Entries are prefaced by an italicized date line within brackets: [June 14, 1879; Saturday].

8. Where material calls for explanation or contextualization, I have added these in footnotes.

9. Where Nuttall supplies only a last name, I have added the first name in brackets where possible, but have left references to Nuttall himself and to the church president (“President Taylor,” “President Woodruff) without such an aid. I have also provided the names of states and territories in brackets for locations outside Utah.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The process of transcription and annotation was lengthy and sometimes frustrating, but I enjoyed tremendous encouragement and help from Gary James Bergera, who introduced me to these remarkable diaries and read through drafts of the manuscript. His contribution to this project cannot be overstated. Appreciation goes to David J. Whittaker, who read the entire manuscript and provided insights and suggestions, and to Thomas G. Alexander, Ronald K. Esplin, and Michael K. Winder for reading early drafts of the introduction. Also to the staff of Signature Books, who were a delight to work with—especially Ron Priddis for reviewing the manuscript and contributing to the footnote matter, not to mention his wit and good cheer through it all; Connie Disney for her beautiful and careful typographical composition; and Jani Fleet for her eagle’s eye in proofing and help with the index. Thanks to Kristen Rogers-Iversen, William B. Smart, and Donna Toland Smart for examining portions of the manuscript and providing the usual support in whatever endeavor I undertake.

I received financial support from the Smith-Pettit Foundation, the Charles Redd Center for Western Studies, and the History Department at Brigham Young University. I appreciate their confidence. Permission to consult the originals was granted by Russell Taylor and the staff of the L. Tom Perry Special Collections at Brigham Young University. I appreciate their cooperation in making the original diaries and other sources available to me. Though the diaries are considered to be in the public domain, permission to publish was very graciously granted by Floyd Giles.

Special thanks to my beautiful and brilliant wife, Holly Rogers, who for several years patiently prodded this work to conclusion. She is an able editor, critic, and sounding board who became almost as fascinated with Nuttall and his diaries as I had become. This book would not have been completed without her.

Finally, I hope this volume will do justice to the man who I have come to respect.

Prominent
FIGURES

Bateman, Samuel R. 1832-1911. Bodyguard for Wilford Woodruff; “jack of all trades.”

Beck, John. 1843-1913. Founder of Bullion, Beck, and Champion Mining Company; founder of Beck Hot Springs.

Budge, William. 1828-1919. President of Bear Lake Stake; president of European Mission, 1878-80; served in Idaho legislature.

Bunting, James L. 1832-1923. Kanab High Council; counselor to Nuttall in Kanab Stake, released Sept. 1883.

Burton, Robert T. 1821-1907. Presiding Bishopric: second counselor, 1875-84; first counselor, 1884.

Caine, John T. 1829-1911. Democrat; Utah’s fourth delegate to Congress, 1883-93.

Cannon, Abraham H. 1859-96. Son of George Q. Cannon; Seven Presidents of Seventy, 1882-89; apostle 1889-96.

Cannon, Angus M. 1834-1915. Brother of George Q. Cannon; president of Salt Lake Stake, 1876-1904.

Cannon, George Q. 1827-1901. LDS apostle, 1860-77; counselor to four LDS presidents, 1880-1901; Utah delegate to Congress, 1872-82.

Clawson, Hiram B. 1826-1912. Son-in-law of Brigham Young; lawyer; general superintendent of ZCMI; manager of Salt Lake Theatre Corporation.

Clayton, Nephi W. 1855-1922. Son of secretary to Joseph Smith; Territorial Librarian, 1876-91.

Dusenberry, Warren N. Probate Judge of Utah County; first principal of Brigham Young Academy.

Dyer, Frank H. Receiver for properties in church suits; U.S. Marshal in Utah.

Gibbs, George F. 1846-1924. Clerk to Brigham Young, 1868-71; secretary to First Presidency, 1876-1924.

Grant, Heber J. 1856-1945. President of LDS Church, 1918-45; apostle, 1882; prominent Utah entrepreneur.

Irvine, John. Church reporter, released for persistent drunkenness, 1888.

Jack, James. 1829-1911. Chief clerk, treasurer to First Presidency; financial clerk in several businesses.

Johnson, William D., Jr. Bishop in Kanab Stake; close friend of Nuttall.

Leithead, James. 1816-1907. Bishop of St. Thomas Ward, Nevada; high councilor, patriarch, Kanab Stake.

Lund, Anthon H. 1844-1921. LDS apostle, 1889; counselor to three LDS presidents, 1901-21.

Lyman, Francis M. 1840-1916. Son of excommunicated apostle Amasa Mason Lyman; apostle, 1880-1916; president of Quorum of Twelve, 1903.

Malin, James E. 1839-1909. Peace officer; present at John Taylor’s death in Kaysville.

McAllister, John D. T. 1827-1910. President of St. George Stake, 1.877-88; assistant to Wilford Woodruff, St. George temple; president, Rio Virgin Manufacturing Company; president, St. George Dramatic Association; president, Manti temple.

Merrill, Marriner Wood. 1832-1906. LDS apostle, 1889-1906; Utah territorial legislature, 1876-80; president of Logan temple, 1884-1906.

Penrose, Charles W. 1832-1925. Democrat; long-time editor of Deseret News; counselor in stake presidency, 1884-1904; apostle, 1904; counselor to two LDS presidents, 1911-25.

Preston, William B. 1830-1908. President of Cache Stake, 1879-84; Presiding Bishop, 1884-1907; director of Logan Temple Association, 1884-1907.

Reynolds, George F. 1842-1909. Clerk to Brigham Young, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff; Seven Presidents of Seventy, 1890-1909; defendant in polygamy test case before U.S. Supreme Court.

Rich, Charles C. 1809-83. LDS apostle, 1849-83; prominent in settlement of southern Idaho.

Richards, Franklin D. 1821-99. LDS apostle, 1849-99; president of European Mission, 1850-52, 1867-69; published Pearl of Great Price, 1851; Church Historian, 1889-99; probate and county judge, Weber County.

Richards, Franklin S. 1849-1934. Son of Franklin D. Richards; three Utah constitutional conventions; general counsel for LDS Church.

Roueche, Thomas. Housed polygamists in Kaysville, including John Taylor through Taylor’s death.

Smith, John Henry. 1848-1911. Son of Apostle George A. Smith; father of future church president George Albert Smith; apostle, 1880; counselor to Joseph F. Smith, 1910.

Smith, Joseph F. 1838-1918. President of LDS Church, 1901-18; counselor to three LDS presidents, 1880-1901; issued “Second Manifesto” on plural marriage, 1904.

Smoot, Abraham O. 1815-95. Mayor of Salt Lake City; president of Utah Stake; businessman.

Snow, Erastus. 1818-88. LDS apostle, 1849-88; presided over church in southern Utah.

Snow, Lorenzo. 1814-1901. President of LDS Church, 1898-1901; apostle, 1849; counselor to Brigham Young, 1873-77; presided over church in Brigham City.

Spence, William C. Transportation agent, clerk to First Presidency.

Spencer, Howard O. 1838-1918. First counselor in Kanab Stake presidency, 1877-84.

Sudbury, Samuel J. 1829-1910. Managed Gardo House during federal raid; employed by John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff.

Taylor, John. 1808-87. President of LDS Church, 1880-87; apostle, 1838; staunch defender of polygamy, died in hiding.

Taylor, John W. 1858-1916. Son of John Taylor; apostle, 1884; resigned from Quorum of Twelve over polygamy, 1905; excommunicated, 1911.

Teasdale, George. 1831-1907. LDS apostle, 1882; president of European Mission, 1887-90; Utah state legislature, 1880-83.

Thatcher, Moses. 1842-1909. LDS apostle, 1879; expelled from Quorum of Twelve over Political Manifesto and business dealings, 1896.

Varian, Charles S. As U.S. Attorney for Utah, prosecuted polygamists, 1884-86, 1889-93; state constitutional convention, elected to legislature, 1895; prominent Republican until split over silver issue, 1896.

Wells, Daniel H. 1814-91. Counselor to Brigham Young to 1877; counselor to Quorum of Twelve; president of Manti Temple; mayor of Salt Lake City.

Wilcken, Charles H. 1830-1915. Bodyguard, driver for John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff.

Winder, John R. 1820-1910. Presiding Bishopric, 1887; counselor in Salt Lake temple presidency, 1893-1910; counselor to Joseph F. Smith, 1901-10.

Woodruff, Wilford. 1807-98. President of LDS Church, 1889-98; apostle, 1839; issued 1890 Manifesto banning plural marriage.

Young, Brigham, Jr. 1836-1903. Son of Brigham Young; apostle, 1868; counselor to father, 1873-77; president of Quorum of the Twelve.

Young, John W. 1844-1924. Son of Brigham Young; counselor to father, 1876-77; counselor to Quorum of Twelve, 1877; resigned from Twelve over church finances and debt, 1891; lobbied for Utah statehood, Washington, D.C.

Young, LeGrand. 1840-1921. Nephew of Brigham Young; legal counsel for church.

Zane, Charles S. 1831-1915. Chief Justice of Utah territorial supreme court, 1884-93; justice of Utah state supreme court to 1899.

The L. John Nuttall
FAMILY

PARENTS AND SIBLINGS

William Nuttall, 1796-1864; m. 1822
Mary Langhorn, 1798-1880

William Ephraim, 1825-99
Leonard John, 1834-1905
Joseph Louis, 1836-1912

WIVES AND CHILDREN

Elizabeth Clarkson, 1836-1902; m. 1856
Elizabeth Ann, 1858-1933; m. 1879, George A. Shumway
Leonard John, Jr., 1859-1949; m. 1880, Christina Little
Thomas Clarkson, 1861-1920; m. 1883, Harriet G. Self
Joseph William, 1863-1917
Mary Clarkson, 1865-?; m. Alma Holdaway
George Albert, 1867-1954; m. 1889, Olivia Berg
Eleanor Clarkson, 1870-1955; m. 1892, Malin M. Warner
Daughter, 1869-69
Leanora Clarkson, 1873-74
Clara Clarkson, 1875-1955; m. 1902, Joseph Giles
Heber Clarkson, 1877-97 (?)
Wilford Clarkson, 1878-1935; m. 1899, Delia Lowe

Sophia Taylor, 1849-1909; m. 1875

John Taylor, 1876-81
Harriet Taylor, 1879-79
Sophia E. Taylor, 1881-82
William Taylor, 1883-1918; m. 1909, Olive Marie Christensen
Lenora Taylor, 1885-1911; m. 1908, George B. Andrews
Mary Taylor, 1889-1941; m. 1909, Hyrum J. Christiansen

_______________

NOTES to Introduction:

1. See Scott G. Kenney, comp., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 1833-1898, 9 vols. (Midvale, Utah: Signature Books, 1983-85), 7:322. Nuttall copied the proceedings of the temple dedication into Woodruff’s journal and corrected the dedicatory prayer for publication in the Deseret News. See Clarence G. Jensen, “A Biographical Study of Leonard John Nuttall, Private Secretary to Presidents John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff,” M. A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1962, 34-35.

2. See George D. Smith, ed., An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton (Salt Lake City: Signature Books and Smith Research Associates, 1991).

3. Biographical information comes primarily from Nuttall’s diaries; Jensen, “Biographical Study”; and Clara C. N. Giles, “History of L. John Nuttall,” L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

4. The initial sugar beet experiment failed, and it was not until the 1890s that a successful sugar factory was established (Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900 [Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958], 116-20).

5. See “Record of the Provo Military District,” Apr. 25, 1857 – May 17, 1858, L. John Nuttall Papers, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, cited in Jensen, “Biographical Study,” 9. For the account of the Uinta Valley exploration, see Nuttall’s diary, Aug. 31, Sept. 3-17, 1861, published in Jedediah S. Rogers, “One Vast ‘Contiguity of Waste’: Documents from an Early Attempt to Expand the Mormon Kingdom into the Uinta Basin, 1861,” Utah Historical Quarterly 73 (Summer 2005): 249-64.

6. Nuttall’s activities at the ward and stake levels are discussed in part by P. T. Reilly, “Kanab United Order: The President’s Nephew and the Bishop,” Utah Historical Quarterly 42 (Spring1874): 144-64; and Leonard J. Arrington, Feramoz Y. Fox, and Dean L. May, Building the City of God: Community and Cooperation among the Mormons (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1976), 225-94.

7. See diary entries for Oct. 2, 10, Nov. 20, 1879; Nov. 16-21, 1881; Sept. 3-27, 1883. The Saints in Kanab were constantly urging Nuttall to return, if only for a brief period, to set in order the stake’s affairs. Thomas Chamberlain wrote, “We earnestly hope that you will come [to stake conference in June], as we are very much in need of your counsel, at the present time, and it seems to us that it is absolutely necessary for the good of the Stake that you should be here” (Chamberlain to Nuttall, May 8, 1882, Nuttall Papers). William D. Johnson wrote, “You have been so long from us I fear you cannot feel what I have to up with and carry-such a load that it gets very heavy—I so young & inexperienced. I do need some one to lean on … you must come & visit us and straighten up some matters or the people will get into a worse muddle than at present” (Johnson to Nuttall, May 2, 1883, Nuttall Papers, with carets indicating interlinear insertions). Nephi Johnson wrote in August 1883, “It does look like our stake was without a head … I feel that if Prest Taylor knew just how things were here he would let you come down and be with us at Conference to straighten us up for if this Stake ever needed your fatherly care and wise council it is at the present time” (Johnson to Nuttall, Aug. 17, 1883, Nuttall Papers).

8. See diary entries for Nov. 22, 30, Dec. 11, 19, 1890. N. Lee Smith discusses medicine in LDS history in “Herbal Remedies: God’s Medicine?” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 12 (Fall 1979): 37-60.

9. See Kenney, comp., Wilford Woodruff s Journal, 9:452-563 (Apr. 1, 1897-Sept. 8, 1898). Nuttall was Woodruffs sole companion on an 1897 excursion when, some writers speculate, the aged prophet may have married Lydia von Finkelstein Mountford on a ship off the California coast. D. Michael Quinn, “LDS Church Authority and New Plural Marriages, 1890-1904,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 18 (Spring 1985); 64, believes the marriage may have taken place; others such as Thomas G. Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth.: The Life and Times of Wilford Woodruff, a Mormon Prophet (Salt Lake City; Signature Books, 1991), 324-29, are skeptical.

10. Although the details are sketchy, it will be of interest to readers that Nuttall was likely sealed to a third wife. For a more complete discussion of this issue, see chapter 8, note 55.

11. See, e.g., L. John Nuttall Diary Excerpts (Salt Lake City: Pioneer Press, 1994), and New Mormon Studies CD-ROM: A Comprehensive Resource Library (Salt Lake City: Smith Research Associates, 1998).

12. Young’s remarks echo his sermon printed in the Deseret News, June 18, 1873. See also Nuttall to Wilford Woodruff, George Q. Cannon, and Joseph F. Smith, “Memoranda,” June 3, 1892, Letterbook Copy Book No. 4, p. 290, Nuttall Papers. For more on the endowment and dedication of the St. George temple, see David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).

l3. Other men occupying a position in the office were Joseph Christensen, George F. Gibbs, James Jack, David McKenzie, George Reynolds, William A. Rossiter, William C. Spence, and Arthur Winter. Christensen kept a diary 1889-91. See Bruce A. Van Orden, “Close to the Seat of Authority: Secretaries and Clerks in the Office of the President of the LDS Church, 1870-1900,” copy at the Library, Historical Department, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City.

Nuttall’s service in the First Presidency’s office predated the bureaucratization of LDS administration, but in some respects procedures were beginning to become standardized. On May 27, 1889, he wrote that things had changed so much “during the past two or three years that this information [tithing disbursement] goes entirely to the Presiding Bishop’s Office and none is given to the Presidents office.” After November 1892, the First Presidency no longer personally signed temple recommends except for second anointings, instead delegating this time-consuming task to stake presidents and ward bishops.

14. One such occasion occurred on September 10, 1879, when John M. Bernhisel explained how Emma Smith, the prophet’s widow, had shown him the prophet’s manuscript copy of the Bible and that he had transferred its contents to his own Bible (see also May 31, 1879).

15. Nuttall to Daniel H. Wells, May 19, 1885, Nuttall Papers, qtd. in Gustive O. Larson, The “Americanization” of Utah/or Statehood (San Marino, California: Hunting-ton Library, 1971), 159, and Jensen, “Biographical Study,” 64.

16. The revelation is reprinted in Fred C. Collier, ed., Unpublished Revelations (Salt Lake City: Colliers Publishing Co., 1981), 1:145-46. See also J. Max Anderson, The Polygamy Story: Fiction and Fact (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1979), 63-76; and Paul E. Reimann, Plural Marriage, Limited (Salt Lake City: Utah Printing Co., 1974), 185-224.

17. See also Samuel Bateman, Diary, August 1886 to 1909, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library.

18. Nuttall to George Teasdale, May 31, 1889, Nuttall Papers.

19. For a more balanced view of Judge Zane, see Thomas G. Alexander, “Charles S. Zane: Apostle of the New Era,” Utah Historical Quarterly 34 (Fall 1966): 290-314.

20. See Judith Ann Roderick, “A Historical Study of the Congressional Career of John T. Caine,” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1959, 78-81.

21. Woodruff’s journal mentions on November 24, 1889, that lawyers urged him to “Make some Concession to Court upon Poligamy & other Points” (Kenney, comp., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 9:67-69). As a response to John W. Young’s suggestion that the church legally stipulate that “no more plural marriages shall be solemnized,” Nuttall “felt very much worked up in my feelings for I did not feel that as a church we could assume the position in regard to Celestial marriage which he seemed to desire should be taken.” When he first heard of the revelation Woodruff had dictated on November 24, Nuttall feared he may have converted to Young’s position (Nov. 23, 24, 27, 1889).

22. For the context of this controversy, see Ronald W. Walker, Qualities That Count: Heber J. Grant as Businessman, Missionary, and Apostle (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 2004), 195-229.

23. For example, two of my own relatives are mentioned in the diaries. One entry notes William H. Smart’s release from the Turkish Mission due to ill health. Another indicates that Myra Henry met with John Taylor in Parowan, Utah, and “expressed her desires for her husband & herself to become reconciled so they could go to the Temple & receive such ordinances as they are worthy” ( Nov. 25, 1889; Nov. 22, 1881). Both entries were revelations to my family.

24. Richard H. Cracroft and Neal E. Lambert, eds., A Believing People: Literature of the Latter-day Saints (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1974), 123.

25. Deseret News, Feb. 24, 1905, reported that Nuttall was “known throughout the entire Rocky Mountain region”; Andrew Jensen, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Andrew Jensen History Co., 1901-36), 1:358, wrote that he was “one of the busiest men in the church” (cf. Jensen, “Biographical Study,” 117-19).

26. Nuttall was a remarkably good speller, which is to say his spelling conformed very well to current conventions. Of course, he made inadvertent mistakes such as simple transpositions. Where he did so (“recieved”), I silently corrected it (“received”); similarly where he added a superfluous letter to a word, most often the same letter repeated twice (Congressional!; desireable). If a letter was missing and I thought it would be helpful to the reader to provide it, 1 did so within square brackets (perta[in]ing; stak[e]s), and used the same mechanism to substitute a correct letter for an incorrect one (falcity = ial[s]ity; gendering -” [r]endering). In other more rare instances, Nuttall consistently “misspelled” words (purposal; sensiable), and if they were intelligible, and especially if they provided insight into Nuttall’s vocabulary and pronunciation, I left them the way he wrote them.

27. I added punctuation conservatively where I suspected the reader might stumble without it; anything beyond a period or comma was added in square brackets ([:]). However, I did substitute periods for Nuttall’s ubiquitous dashes, which along with his penchant to begin sentences without capitalizing the initial letter made it difficult to grasp where a thought began or ended without reading it twice. For this reason, I thought it best to insert capital letters to begin sentences and give periods at the end, at least where I found that, upon scrutiny, Nuttall’s intent was clear.

28. Among the most frequently used abbreviations are “Alexr” (Alexander), “answd” (answered), “appt” (appointment), “assn” (association; also “asstn”), “Benj” (Benjamin), “Bro” (brother), “Capt” (captain), “Card” (carried), “Chap” (chapter), “Chas” (Charles), “Co” (company; county), “Coun” (counselor), “Dept” (department), “Des” (Deseret), “Dist Atty” (district attorney), “Ed” (Edward), “Geo” (George), “Hon” (honorable), “Jas” (James) “Jere” (Jeremiah), “Jos” (Joseph), “mo” (month/s), “par” (paragraph), “Pen” (penitentiary), “reed” (received), “Richd” (Richard), “Robt” (Robert), “sec” (section), “Seed” (seconded), “secty” (secretary), “Snr” (senior), “Tel” (telegraph), “Thos” (Thomas), “vol” (volume), “Wm” (William), and “Z.S.B. & T. Co” (Zion’s Savings Bank & Trust Company).

7.
Labors in Washington, D.C.
1890

[January 1, 1890; Wednesday] I arose at Caddo[a], Colorado. Before leaving my berth, I prayed and thanked the Lord for His kindness to me and mine during the past year, and asked His continued blessings, and dedicated myself & family to Him for the future. As I am traveling on my mission I feel my great dependence on my Heavenly Father, and feel to renew my allegiance to Him on this the 1st day of the New Year, ever hopeful that ^I^ may withstand the temptation of life and be prepared for all the events of Gods providence before me.1

[January 2, 1890; Thursday] I bought a ticket to Independence [Missouri]… Mr Hailey went with me onto the Temple Block and explained as to its original size & how it had been encroached up by streets, blocks &c until now it is only about or not quite half its former size.2… I went to the middle of the Block and there offered up my prayers and thanks gi[vi]ng3 for this great privilege of standing on this sacred ground, praying that it might be preserved from the hands of wicked & ungodly men until the Lord should give it to His chosen people to erect thereon a Holy Temple to His name. My soul was filled with joy, and a desire to live to see that day when Zion shall be triumphant….

[January 4, 1890; Saturday] Arrived at Washington [D.C.] at 4 p.m…. took supper with Bro [John T.] Caine & [William] Budge, and afterwards we went to Judge Jere. M. Wilsons residence at 8 p.m. Talked with him on Idaho affairs, as they come before the Senate Committee on Ter[ritorie]s tomorrow, and engaged the Judge to appear before that committee.4 Went with Bro Caine to 232 & talked over matters and mailed the “Official Declaration” of the Presidency & Twelve to the members of the U.S. Supreme Court. I then went to 11 Grant Place & slept with Bro. Budge.

[January 6, 1890; Monday] Went with Bro [William] B[udge] to Judge [Jeremiah M.] Wilsons office & then to 232. Met Bro [John T.] Caine & commenced work. At 12 m. went to the U.S. Supreme Court, saw Justice ^David J^ Brewer of ^Kansas^ sworn in, and heard the decision by Justice [Samuel F.] Miller of Bro Jas Jacks & N[ephi] W Clayton’s cases, which was against them.5 Bro Budge appeared before the Senate Gomty on Ters today on Idaho matters.

[January 7, 1890; Tuesday] On invitation of Bro C[harles] W. Stayner, Bro [William] B[udge] & myself spent the evening with he & wife at 19 Grant Place. He has a Phonograph Graphophone, which he put in operation. I spoke and sang part of a hymn & my medley song into it and heard it repeated very clear. Bro B[udge] also spoke into it. This is a marvelous invention.

[January 8, 1890; Wednesday] By telegram we learn that Prest Geo. Q. Cannon starts for Washington [D.C.] next Monday.

[January 13, 1890; Monday] I called on Gem Geo. B. Williams at his office this morning. Was recd very kindly. Conversed on Utah matters and invited me to call again often, as he wished to talk with me. He was engaged to-day in endeavoring to secure Marshal Parson’s confirmation, thought he would be confirmed, also Judge [Charles S.] Zane. I called at the Post Office Dept for Bro [John T.] Caine. Went to Supreme Court at 12. No decision in our cases. Bros. Caine & Budge & Judge Wilson before the Senate Comty this morning on Idaho affairs.

[January 19, 1890; Sunday] Bros. [John T.] Caine, [James?] Hammond & myself met Prest Geo. Q. Cannon at the B[altimore] & P[otomac] depot at 9. a.m. & took him to my room.

[January 20, 1890; Monday] Five years today when Prest Geo. Q. Cannon and myself went into exile at the President’s office, Salt Lake City, as we learned the US officers purposed arresting us, and Prest Taylor & party were away from home.

[January 23, 1890; Thursday] Bro Cannon went to the capitol today.

[January 25, 1890; Saturday] Bros [John T.] Caine & [William] Budge before the Sub Comty on Ters on Idaho matters & Bro [James?] Hammond before the Indian Committee. Cold today. Bro Cannon left for New York on 8 a.m. train.

[January 26, 1890; Sunday] Prest Cannon returned from New York this morning at 830. I went with him to Takoma [Park, Maryland,] at 9 a.m. to see Bro [John T.] Caine and we all returned on the 1006 train. It is proposed to put Bro John T. Caine in nomination for Mayor of Salt Lake City. We talked the matter over. Bro Caine puts himself into the hands of the Presidency to decide. I assisted Prest Cannon in making a telegram to Prests Woodruff & Smith. In the evening I accompanied Bros Cannon, Caine, and Hammond to the Unitarian Church and heard Mr John N Kimball of Hartford, Conn., speak.

[January 27, 1890; Monday] Went to the Capitol to-day with Prest Cannon and to Supreme Court. No decision in church cases.

[January 28, 1890; Tuesday] This afternoon I went with Bros Cannon & [John T.] Caine to Major [John Wesley] Powells office and talked with him in regard to our Deseret Land affair. Found we could not make our entries under the Desert Land Act,6 whether the reservoir site had been located or not. Also called upon Captain [Clarence Edward] Dutton at his office and conversed with him on the same subject. They were in favor or our going on with the canal, but could only enter our land by Homestead or cash entry. Bro Caine received a telegram from home that his name had been withdrawn from the caucus as Mayor for Salt Lake City, because he is now the Delegate from Utah in Congress.

[January 29, 1890; Wednesday] I went this morning with D[avid] H Cannon to the Botanical Gardens & other places, also to the Wash[in]g[ton] Monument. We walked up the 900 steps to top or 500 feet high. Had a splendid view of the city & surrounding country and came down on the Elevator. Visited other public buildings and returned at 5 p.m. very tired.

[February 3, 1890; Monday] The U.S. Supreme Court decided the Idaho test oath case against our people today.

[February 8, 1890; Saturday] Bro [William] Budge and Judges Jeremiah M.] Wilson & [Ambrose B. J Carlton were before the Comty on Territories in the House to-day on the Idaho Constitution & made arguments. Bro Cannon not feeling very well to-day.

[February 11, 1890; Tuesday] Reed the following telegram from Bro J[ohn] T. Caine at Salt Lake, Feb 10th, “Liberals appear carried election nearly eight hundred majority. Large fraudul[e]nt vote cast. Wells and Rumell far ahead People’s Ticket.”7

[February 14, 1890; Friday] Assisted Bro Cannon on another telegram to Prest Woodruff. Talked with him on the political situation. The Democrats should not see us used up in Utah, Arizona, Idaho & New Mexico for they8 [would] lose four states. Bros Cannon & [William] Budge went to see Senator [Arthur P.] German on these matters.

[February 19, 1890; Wednesday] Receiv[e]d telegram from Prest Cannon at Chicago and answered it. Our Sisters were recognized and admitted as members of the Woman’s Suffr[a]ge Association–we have more members enrolled in Utah than any of the States except Ohio.

[February 24, 1890; Monday] Attended meeting of the Womans National Liberal Union at Willards Hall at 8 p.m. This organization is opposed to Church influence and to Church & State, claiming that the church is the bulwark of Womans Slavery. I was not satisfied with the position taken.

[March 3, 1890; Monday] We went to the Departments, took lunch at the State, War & Navy restaurants. Called at the White House [and] went through the rooms. Shook hands with Prest B[enjamin] Harrison.

[March 5, 1890; Wednesday] Bros John A West of Huntington & Hyrum Bown of Fayette [Utah], missionaries in [the] N[orthern] states, arrived on Monday & called on us to-day. Came to see Washington [B.C.], stayed with us tonight. Bro John T.] Caine said he had a letter for me post marked [from] Provo, but had lost it on way to the office. This is a letter I am expecting from Elizabeth.

[March 15, 1890; Saturday] Wrote some public letters and assisted Bro (John T.] Caine in getting up some facts for Senator [George F.] Edmunds, against the Paddock bill (S. 356) to authorize the Gov. of Utah to appoint certain County officers. We had the same written in Type.

[March 16, 1890; Sunday] I attended the St. James Episcopal Church…. This is as near a Catholic Church service as they can get in their forms & ceremonies, a High Church. I was not at all satisfied in my feelings.

[March 18, 1890; Tuesday] I went on train to Baltimore at 945 to attend the commencement exercises of the College of Physicians & Surgeons at the Academy of Music on invitation of Bro S. H. Alien of Mt Pleasant, Utah, who is a graduate.91 called at Bro A[llen’s] room, 410 Hanover St, he was not there. I found him at the Academy of Music. We walked around a few blocks and back to attend the exercises at 12 m. I had a good seat on the stage among the professors & doctors and enjoye[d] the occasion very much. Bro Alien received his Diploma as Doctor of Medicine, also the 3rd Prize, a fine Gold Medal. Bp Keene of the Catholic Church deliver[e]d the Valedictory address & Cardinal Gibbon the benidiction. We afterwards went to Bro A[llen’s] room & got dinner & walked out onto Federal Hill where we got a good view of the City & Bay. Bro Alien has an offer to take charge of the City Hospital at Baltimore and he asked me counsel. After hearing him I suggested that he accept the appointment. I returned on the 6 p.m. train.

[March 21, 1890; Friday] Mr E[li] H Parsons, U.S. Marshal of Utah, called at my room this afternoon and staid a short time. He wanted to see Mr John T.] Caine. He asked me if I was from Utah. I answered him, Yes, when he said he thought he had seen me there.10

[March 22, 1890; Saturday] Marshal [Eli H.] Parsons called twice today and had some talk with Bro [John T.] Caine & myself about his confirmation and charges which had been made against him. He told us that Wm McKay had been discharged as Asst. U.S. Dist Atty in Utah.

[March 30, 1890; Sunday] I attended the 1st Baptist Church this evening on 16th St, and was much interested in the services Rev C. A. Stakely preached. Saw 2 young women baptized in the font which is on the Stand. The minister came in the front and read some passages of Scripture & offered prayer. There he led one lady down into the font, and holding her with his left hand raised his right hand & said “In obedience to the command of my heavenly master and upon your profession of faith in him, I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, amen” & then immersed the convert and led her out.

[April 1, 1890; Tuesday] This evening attended the ^national ^ conference on the Christian Principles of Civil Government, at Lincoln Music Hall, and heard some speeches on this new move. They want to have God in the Constitution and the Church Supreme to the State. Just what the Latter day Saints have claimed and been blamed for by the Christians all the time.

[April 2, 1890; Wednesday] The Idaho bill comes up in the House to-day.

[April 3, 1890; Thursday] The Idaho bill & amendments under discussion. The amendments were voted on as follows: First. Yeas 111, Nays 125, Majority 14. Second. Yeas 104, Nays 121, Majority 17. Third, vote No, by rising vote.

Vote on Admission. Yeas 129, Nays 1, refusing to vote 67. The Speaker counted a quorum present and the bill so passed at 510 p.m. Sent a telegram to the Presidency at home…. I called on Bro [John T.] Caine this evening–also attended the National Conference at Lincoln Hall and heard two good speeches. While this body of people are meeting and arguing for liberty & freedom of the Church, the Congress is passing a law to deprive the Saints of their political rights in consequence of their religious views and practice.

[April 6, 1890; Sunday] I attended the Catholic Services at St Patricks Church, 10th St. Bishop Keene preached–said that Good Friday was the day to bury our sins in Christ and to arise with him on Easter Sunday. The tomb of Christ is the baptismal font wherein we are buried and arise to a newness of life in Christ.

[April 11, 1890; Friday] In the afternoon attended the Military Parade & Review on the grounds south of the White House, given in honor of the Pan American Congress.11 It was a nice affair.

[April 14, 1890; Monday] Went to Supreme Court at 12 m. No decision in our cases. Mr Worthington called and told me that he had learned the Court were not satisfied on the right of Congress to pass a law escheating personal property, and it was on the escheating business they were undecided upon.

[April 16, 1890; Wednesday] This is Emancipation day. The colored people are having a good time celebrating. I saw their procession.

[April 18, 1890; Friday] Wrote out part of a speech for Bro [John T.] Caine for next Wednesday before the Comty on Ters on the Struble bill.12

[April 22, 1890; Tuesday] Finished writing Bro [John T.] Caines speech for tomorrow…. Bro Caine & myself read over his speech to see that we had it correct this evening.

[April 23, 1890; Wednesday] Bro [John T.] Caine appeared before the Comty on Ters this morning and had an hour, or all the time he wanted, granted to make his speech, which appeared to have a good effect upon the Comty. Mr [Fred] Dubois objected to his speaking but the Comty gave him the time. It came out that Gov [Arthur L.] Thomas & [Caleb W.] West have been taking part in pressing this measure, although they told Bro Caine that they were not and would not. I wrote a long synopsis of the speech which was sent by telegraph by Mr Suthridge to the Salt Lake Herald, Bro Caine helping.

[April 28, 1890; Monday] This is the Anniversary of Elizabeths birthday. I had forgotten about it until to-day. I felt to ask the blessings of the Lord upon her, and to be thankful that she has passed through another year, and we are hopeful for the future. No decision in the Church suit in Supreme Court today. The House Committee on Territories by a strict party vote agreed to report the disfranchisement bill to the House–amended by making it strictly for Utah.

[April 30, 1890; Wednesday] Reed a telegram from the Presidency asking if we want more help on the disfranchisement bills, which was answered. Also wrote a letter if help can come of men who are personally interested, or their business influence can be used, they may do some good.

[May 5, 1890; Monday] No decision in Supreme Court today. I wrote some on a speech for Bro [John T.] Caine on the disfranchisement bill should it come up in the House. It did not.

[May 8, 1890; Thursday] Bro John W. Young arrived from New York & called on us. He returns to N.Y. this evening & starts for England next Saturday. He reported the brethren at home all well. He blessed me at parting.

[May 11, 1890; Sunday] Bro F[rank] J Cannon & wife came & spent the evening with us. Bro Cannon handed me a letter from Prest Woodruff in regard to the increase of stock in Z[ion’s] S[avings] B[ank] & T[rust] Co., also a check #54 for $37.50 B[ullion] B[eck] & C[hampion] M[ining] Co dividend. He told me about C[harles] H. Wilcken & his labors. He is just as attentive to the brethren as ever–and they have helped him now he is out of office.

[May 19, 1890; Monday] The U.S. Supreme Court rendered their decision in the Church Suits to-day. They affirmed the decision of the Territorial Supreme Court of Utah in every particular. The opinion was given by Justice [Joseph P.] Bradley. Chief Justice [Melville W.] Fuller and Justices [Stephen J.] Field & [Lucius Q. C.] Lamar dissented. Ex Senator [Joseph] McDonald filed motion for stay of mandate. This was telegraphed to the Presidency at home. Thus we are robbed as a Church by the U.S. Government.13

[May 20, 1890; Tuesday] BrosJas Sharp & Lewis S. Hills arrived last night & called on us this morn[i]ng. They have met with business friends on these Disfranchisem[en]t bills, and want further information. After conversation it was arranged that they return to New York, see friends and get letters sent here to Senators & Representatives against bills. I went with them to the Capitol & Supreme Court. While there Mr [Joseph] McDonald made motion for rehearing of Church Suits. Was given till Thursday to prepare papers. Met Judge [Jeremiah M.] Wilson & introduced the brethren to him & Mr McDonald.

[May 23, 1890; Friday] On motion of Mr [Joseph] McDonald the Supreme Court stayed the mandate in the Church Suit until next fall and set aside the decree. Did not grant a rehearing. This gives time to work against the decision. The influence of friends had already been brought to bear on the Court.

[May 26, 1890; Monday] We have received a large number of petitions to Congress against the Cullom & Strubble bills from Salt Lake, Ogden, and the Territory = 14,871 non-polygamous Mormons, 436 non-Mormons from Ogden, and 147 non-Mormons from Salt Lake, 397 from Idaho, and 356 from Wyoming.

[May 27, 1890; Tuesday] Bro F[rank] J. Cannon told me this evening that Mr [Isaac N.] Struble had agreed to withdraw his bill from the House if he can get the consent of the majority of the Comty on Ters. These bills and their consideration seem to be in good shape. No disposition to push them.

[May 30, 1890; Friday] Started on Excursion train at 7.25. Had a pleasant trip through [Pennsylvania], a new country to me. Gettysburg is an old place. I got some lunch & started out to see the sights. Went to Cemetry Hill & over the battleground there–through the Cemetry and along the Tanneytown road to Little Round Top.14 Called at Geni [George G.] Meads headquarters and noticed several monuments of note. Fell in company with 3 men who were like myself bent on seeing the country, so we went together. I had a good map of the whole field. While on little round top Col Bachelor and the Congressional party came up and I stood by the Col. while he made a full explanation of the battles & pointed out the location of the several commands, which was very interesting.

[June 2, 1890; Monday] Called on Rep. [Isaac N.] Struble at his residence for Bro John T.] Caine in regard to Bro F[rank] J. Cannon meeting with the Committee next Wednesday. He was quite pleasant & said the committee would meet & Mr Cannon would be heard. Bro Caine was very sick last night. Mrs Caine called me up at 3 o.clock. I went & administered to him and sat with him till 4 a.m. when he felt better.

[June 4, 1890; Wednesday] Bro F[rank]J Cannon made an argument before the House Comty on Ters on the Struble bill. This is an unusual thing, to hear arguments after a bill has been reported to the House. Bro [John T.] Caine was with him.

[June 9, 1890; Monday] Bro. Cannon reed a letter from Prest Smith in which he says the Deputies had made a raid on Sophias house but she was not at home and they did not get her, she having left her home to avoid the Census taker. I confirred with Bro Cannon & he thought matters could be made right with the officers if he or Bro Clawson were at home. I sent a telegram to Bro Smith as follows: “Have folks keep away until G[eorge] Q. Cannon & H[iram] B. Clawson returns.” This seemed to be the best I could do.

[June 10, 1890; Tuesday] Reed a letter from Sophia. All well. She tells me the Deputy raid was a false alarm. It was a man from Thos E. Taylors to collect a bill and his blundering way caused alarm to Mrs Francis who was at the house at the time. I also reed a letter from Prest Jos. F. Smith giving the same word. For this I am truly thankful.

[June 20, 1890; Friday] Senator [George F.] Edmunds called up his bill S 4047 on Church Personal Property. It was passed over till tomorrow.

[June 21, 1890; Saturday] At request of Bro. [John T.] Caine I called on Judge [Ambrose B.] Carlton to get his help with Senators to defeat [George F.] Edmunds & his bill. Bro Caine called on Ex-Senator [Joseph] McDonaId. Rained very hard. Edmunds called up his bill and forced it through the Senate against all opposition on 5 majority votes. We sent two telegrams to the Presidency.

[June 23, 1890; Monday] The Senate Comty on Ters. decided to report a new Test Oath bill for Utah similar to the Arizona bill submitted early in the session.

[June 27, 1890; Friday] Senator [George F.] Edmunds tried to get up his bill to give the Gov. of Utah power to appoint Ter & Co Officers. It went over. The bill to admit Wyomi[n]g into the Union passed in the Senate with some amendments. Senator [Orville H.] Platt called up the Idaho Admission bill. It went over till Monday.

[June 28, 1890; Saturday] Mr [Orville H.] Platt from the Senate Comty on Ters. reported (S 3480) bill for Test Oath in Utah–amended. The bill for a Public Building in Ogden passed the Senate $250.000.

[June 29, 1890; Sunday] Wrote out some lists of offices in Utah now filled by appointment of the Governor–also those sought to be filled by the Edmunds bill–for the use of Senators tomorrow if needed. Bro. [John T.] Caine took one copy to Judge [Ambrose B.] Carlton.

[June 30, 1890; Monday] Mr [George F.] Edmunds did not call up his bill today. The Idaho bill passed over.

[July 1, 1890; Tuesday] Senator J[ohn] T. Morgan of Ala[bama] presented bill S 4176 to prohibit Mormons entering land in Wyoming. [The] Edmunds Election bill [was] called up & referred to the Calendar. [It] may be called up at any time. The Bill for the admission of Idaho passed the Senate this afternoon.

[July 2, 1890; Wednesday] We expect to obtain a pardon for Byron W. Brown, papers being prepared to-day. The Federal Election Bill passed the House tonight. James A. Miner, of Mich, was confirmed as Associate Justice of Utah Supreme Court.

[July 6, 1890; Sunday] This is the 56th anniversary of my birth. I am in good health and very thankful for my present position. I am from home in the discharge of duty imposed upon m[e] by the Servants of the Lord. My wife Elizabeth & son Wilford are with me [since June 6] and my wife Sophia and all her children and their children at home are in the enjoyment of good health. We have all been greatly blessed of the Lord during the past year, so I have cause to be truly grateful to the Lord for all His mercies to me & mine and I thanked Him in my prayers. Elizabeth & Wilford handed me a nice watch chain as a birthday gift and I wore it today.

[July 8, 1890; Tuesday] Wyoming Admission Bill passed & was signed by the speaker today.

[July 19, 1890; Saturday] I went to the Capitol & Committee Room on the Judiciary and heard Col. [James O.] Broadheads argument on the Church Suit bill, which was good and he seemed to make a good impression on the committee–his argument was ordered printed.

[July 25, 1890; Friday] Three years ago this evening Prest John Taylor died. Many changes have transpired since then.

[July 27, 1890; Sunday] This afternoon went to St. Mary’s, [a] new church on 5th St., to see the ceremony of laying the cornerstone. There was a large procession of Catholic Societies and three Bands paraded, which we saw, and afterwards got a good place to sit and see the ceremonies and hear the speeches. Bishop A. A Curtis of Wilmington, Del. & Rev R. Preiss, a German Priest, spoke. Thousands of people present.

[August 10, 1890; Sunday] Bro [John T.] Caine reed a telegram that his son James was in a critical condition from the effects of a blow on the head by a street highwayman at Salt Lake City. He telegraph[ed] to the Presidency about his going home to see his son.

[August 16, 1890; Saturday] Reed letter from Bro. John T.] Caine written on train near Burlington, Iowa, 14th. He had reed a telegram at Chicago and ^he^ expected that his son James E. was then dead as he was sinking fast. Went with Elizabeth] & W[ilford] to the White House grounds & heard the Marine Band play–saw Prest [Benjamin] Harrison on the White House porch. Wrote a letter of condolence to Bro Caine. His son died on Wednesday, 13th, at 4 p.m.

[August 20, 1890; Wednesday] Judge [Ambrose B.] Carlton called. Nothing of importance going on in Congress.

[August 21, 1890; Thursday] David H. Cannon came from New York and called on us this evening. He took dinner. He had come on some business for Bro John W. Young, had attended to it & purposed returning tonight. We spent the evening in conversation very agreeably. He told me that Bro Brigham Young [Jr.] has been appointed to go to Liverpool to relieve Bro George Teasdale at the Liverpool Office & Presidency of the European Mission.

[August 26, 1890; Tuesday] Reed telegram from Bro [William C.] Spence informing me that Bro. John T.] Caine left the city for Washington this morning, via D[enver] & R[io] G[rand] Railway.

[August 30, 1890; Saturday] Elizabeth, Wilford & myself went to the White House and each shook hands with the President of the United States (Benjamin Harrison). I was very desirous that Wilford should have this privilege. ^As he approached^ the President ^said “well my boy” and^ on shaking his hand said “how do you do my little man.” He wished ma good luck. Bro John T. Caine returned this afternoon. Judge A[mbrose] B. Carlton called and left a copy of the “National Democrat” which contains an article he had written entitled “give the Mormon’s Fair Play.” It is a very good article.

[September 1, 1890; Monday] Judge [Ambrose B.] Carlton called. Bro [John T.] Caine agreed to pay for 500 copies of the “National Democrat” containing his article. I also went and got 50 more copies which I address[ed] & sent to the brethren at home & Presidents of Stakes &c.

[September 2, 1890; Tuesday] There is now talk of an adjournment of Congress from the 1st to 15th of October. By the home papers we learn that Judge [Charles S.] Zane ruled in favor of John H Rumell Jr as Recorder for Salt Lake Co. The Liberals have tried hard to keep him out of that office.

[September 18, 1890; Thursday] Sent telegram to Presidency in regard to press reports of utterances of Judge [Thomas J.] Anderson & Report of Utah Commission recommending further legislation against the Saints.

[September 19, 1890; Friday] The [Orville H.] Platt bill S. 3480, “Test Oath,” was called on the Calendar today in the Senate & went over on objection of Senator [Daniel W.] Voorhees.

[September 21, 1890; Sunday] Bro Heber J. Grant & [his plural wife] Miss [Hulda Augusta] Winters came over from New York this morning early. Bro. [John T.] Caine met them at the depot, he having reed a telegram last night of their coming. I was very glad to meet Bro Grant.

[September 24, 1890; Wednesday] We attended services at the Hebrew Synagogue on 8th St. on the occasion of Fast on the day of Atonement. The Fast and services commenced at 630 on last evening and concluded at 630 this evening, the services being continuous. We saw the rolls containing the Book or laws of Moses, also the Holy of Holies–and at the conclusion of the services the blowing of the Shofar, a horn.

[September 25, 1890; Thursday] We receiv[e]d a telegram from Prest Woodruff containing a declaration ^or manifesto^ from him in regard to recent report of the Utah Commission on the subject of Polygamous Marriages & of the preaching of that doctrine by the Church Authorities, in which he denies their statements and declares himself as willing to obey the laws of the nation on that subject & to advise the members of the church to do likewise, &c. Bro [John T]. Caine made arrangements to have the declaration ^or manifesto^ published in the Evening “Star ^& Critic”^ and to have it printed in a circular letter or pamphlet for distribution to the President, Cabinet, Senate & House of Reps & other leading men.15

[September 26, 1890; Friday] Busy in sending circular letters to members of Congress &c, 1000 letters having been printed. A good article from the pen of Capt John Codman is printed in the “National Democrat” on the Mormon question. Judge [Ambrose B.] Carlton called.

[September 27, 1890; Saturday] Very busy in office. Called at “National Democrat” office & got some of their papers, & handed them lists of members of Congress to send the paper to. Folded & address[ed] 50 papers & sent off a large number of the manifestos.

[September 28, 1890; Sunday] I reed letter from Bro James Jack with a draft of Zions Savings Bank for $73.75 sent for my traveling expenses home, $10[,]000 having been appropriated by the Presidency for that purpose & the balance taken out for my ticket from Chicago home, also a letter from Bro W[illiam] C. Spence containing my Railway ticket from Chicago & instructions as to my ticket from New York. ^I had an interview with Mr W. T. Hinman, Cor[respondcnt] of [the] Cleveland Leader on Utah & Prest Woodruffs manifesto.^

[September 29, 1890; Monday] Busy in office addressing & sending off manifestos.

[October 1, 1890; Wednesday] Congress adjourned this evening at 6 Oclock without passing any inimical legislation against the Saints of God, so we feel free again, for a season at least.

[October 20, 1890; Monday] Arose [in Salt Lake City] refreshed & feeling well. Met Bro Geo Reynolds, also Prest Jos F Smith, this morning and, after breakfast, Prest W[ilford] Woodruff, who all greeted me very kindly and expressed themselves as pleased to again meet me. Prest Geo Q. Cannon came in afterwards & seemed glad to see me. I met several of the brethren, Bro H[eber] J. Grant, Bp H[iram] B Clawson, C[harles] H Wilcken, with whom I had a talk….

Prest Geo Q Cannon called Bro Reynolds and myself into the parlor and defined our labors as agreed upon by the Presidency. I will take my position same as before I went East, whilst Bro Reynolds will attend to answering correspondence and such other matters as will keep him employed.

[October 21, 1890; Tuesday] I met Bro. F[rancis] M. Lyman who expressed his pleasure at meeting me again. We had some conversation on political affairs. After I went to bed Bro Angus M. Cannon came to bed with me. He has been away but makes the Gardo his home for the present.

[October 22, 1890; Wednesday] The Board of Directors of the Inland Salt Company met and talked about issuing bonds to raise money to pay off debts. Adjourned till tomorrow.

Directors of Zions Savings Bank met at 1 p.m. & transacted the business before the meeting. It is urged that the building be finished. I met Bro Franklin D Richards who is enjoying good health. He & Bro [John] Jacques submitted the statistics of Religious bodies or ward & stake organizations of the Church, as required by the U.S. Supt. of Census, which were approved. Bro Frank J. Cannon arrived from Washington [D.C.] this morning and called. I had a little talk with him.

[October 23, 1890; Thursday] Bro Wm W. Alien and wife Eliza Ann were recommended to receive their 2nd anointings & approved by Prest Woodruff. At a meeting of the Inland Salt Company this morning it was decided to offer $20,000 in the Company Bonds to liquidate a debt of the company to Zion’s Savings Bank of some $16,000 & Bro James] Jack was requested to attend to this matter.

I assisted Prests Woodruff & Smith on consecrating16 a bottle of oil for Prest Woodruffs daughter Susan C Scholes who lives in Iowa. I attended the usual ^prayer^ meeting of the Presidency and Apostles at 2 p.m. where it was decided that Prest Woodruff will attend the Box Elder & Prest Geo Q Cannon the Oneida Stake Conference next Sunday & Monday. The report of M. N. Stone, Special Commissioner to examine into the reports & conduct of F[rank] H Dyer as Receiver in the Church Suit, was filed in the Territorial Supreme Court & published in the papers.

[October 24, 1890; Friday] A letter was reed from Attys F[ranklin] S. Richards & LeGrand Young in regard to the title of the Temple Block at Independence, Mo., now owned by the Hedrickites. This letter was referred to Bro John M. Cannon to answer Mr [C. A.] Hall, it appearing there are some doubts as to the legality of the ^title to the^ lands in question.

I met Bro John T. Caine at the office to-day & got the small parcel he brought for me by Joseph going to his house for it. $5000 worth of tickets were purchased by Prest Woodruff for distribution to [the] Mr Chas Ellis lecture in the Theatre next Monday night.17 Bro Chas O Card called & an appropriation of $50000 was made to pay for rental & fencing of church land at Card^ston^ Canada. I attended a meeting of the ^Stockholders of the^ Salt Lake & Deseret Manufacturing & Canal Co at the Gardo at 5 p.m. at which meeting the stock of the company was divided, pro rated to the Stockholders, being 10,000 shares at $500 each, and an assessment of $2.50 per share was made to pay off the indebtedness & carry the water to each 40 acre subdivision of land in the Townsite entry. This will give each Share holder of a section of land 416 2/3 shares, which at $250 per share makes $104[,]000–the previous assessments having been $87[,]500, $50[,]000 of which I owe yet. These assessments and the Government price of the land will make a cost of $4.25 per acre. Presidents Woodruff & Smith left this evening for their homes.

[October 25, 1890; Saturday] A telegram was reed from Prest Wm. Budge at Paris, Idaho, “Just received advises from U.S. Attorney [Fremont] Wood, Boise, that no person now under arrest will be called for until further notice.” This relieves the Idaho question. Prest Geo Q Cannon had an interview with Bro John W. Hess on Davis County Elections matters.

Prests Woodruff & Cannon left by the 5 p.m. train for Brigham City & Franklin [Idaho] respectively.

[October 27, 1890; Monday] By letter from Elder Brigham Young Jr.] at Liverpool [England] we learn that he wants more Elders as missionaries.

Bro Wm C. Spence returned from California on Saturday evening and called this morning & reported his labors, which were successful in obtaining good rates for our Elders to the Sandwich Islands, Samoa & New Zealand.

[October 29, 1890; Wednesday] I attended [a] meeting of the Board of Directors of Zions Savings Bank at 1 p.m. The Sugar Company elected new Directors as follows, Geo Q Cannon, John Beck, Moses Thatcher, A[lonzo] E Hyde, James Chipman, A[braham] 0 Smoot, Thos R. Cutler, Elias Morris, Arthur Stayner, James Jack, HeberJ Grant, Frank Armstrong & L[eonard] G. Hardy.

Joseph H. Dean called. It was deemed best that he do not give himself up to the courts at present.

[October 30, 1890; Thursday] Prest Geo. Q. Cannon went to Ogden to attend funeral services of Thos K. Little, son ofJesse G Little & his former wife Emily, on the 130 p.m. train.

I attended the usual Prayer meeting of the Presidency and Apostles at 2 p.m. I met Bro John W. Taylor there, also Bro Daniel H. Wells. I afterwards had some conversation with Bro Wells on [Manti] Temple, and personal affairs.

[October 31, 1890; Friday] I met Bps [William B.] Preston, [Robert T.] Burton & [John R.] Winder this morning at the office, and attended to the office work. Elder John W. Young prof[f]ered the use of his [railroad] car to Prest Woodruff & party when they go to Mexico, or elsewhere. It is a narrow ga[u]ge car but he will have broad gage trucks put under it, and it is nicely fitted up inside. His offer was accepted should it be needed.

[November 1, 1890; Saturday] The Presidency left the office last evening, and I am alone attending to the office duties. 14 letters and 9 recommends received. I handed to James Jack $2000 of money sent me to Washington [D.C.j for my expenses home & not used by me. Had some conversation with Bro W[illiam] C Spence on Emigration matters.

[November 3, 1890; Monday] The following telegram to Prest Woodruff was reed from Washington DC. dated Nov 1/90,

[Wilford Woodruff]

“Attorney General has telegraphed District Attorney Idaho, his suggestions that Idaho prosecutions might be postponed if public interests would not suffer. Wire this information to attorneys in Idaho.

J[eremiah] M. Wilson.” …

Prest Jos. F. Smith & myself attended the Grand Rally of the People’s Party at the Theatre this evening, being seated in Prest Woodruffs box. Part18 of the proceedings went slow, but a good time was had and was much appreciated. The speakers were Hon F[ranklin] S. Richards, Hon John T Caine, Jos W. Summerhays, J[oshua] H Paul, Frank J. Cannon & S[cipio] A Kenner.

[November 4, 1890; Tuesday] This is the Delegate Election day and everything passed off very quietly.

It was decided that the seating of the Choir and the Stands be changed in the Large Tabernacle.

S[amuel] R Thurman was set apart for his mission to Gt. Britain by Prests Cannon & Smith, Prest Smith mouth.

Elder Angus T. Wright, late President of the New Zealand Mission, he having returned on Sunday evening last from his mission, called & reported his labors

[November 5, 1890; Wednesday] Arrangements were made to assist the Saints in Star Valley, Wyoming, to the balance of the 3000 bushels of wheat appropriated for them last spring, they having lost their crops by frost.

I attended the usual meeting of the Board of Directors of Z[ion’s] S[avings] B[ank] & T[rust] Co at 1 p.m. & was appointed Secretary pro tern for the meeting. Bro [George] Reynolds being absent. ^Bro Schettler expects to pay a divide[n]d of 6% by December 31/90.^

The matter of the Deseret Hospital was spoken of by Sister Jane T. Richards & Bp H[iram] B. Clawson. Sister R[ichards] complains of Dr. R[omania] B. Pratt assuming to run the whole affair & the Board being ignored–she wants to be released from the Board. It was expected that a meeting of the Board will be called soon & matters may be then attended to.

[November 6, 1890; Thursday] I attended the usual Prayer meeting of the Presidency and Apostles at 2 p.m. at the Gardo House office. Met Bro Lorenzo Snow who came down from Brigham this morning & called. He is enjoying good health & spirits.

[November 10, 1890; Monday] President Woodruff had a personal interview with Mr R[alph] W. Rigdon, of Cuba, N. York, a grandson of the late Sidney Rigdon, who is visiting this city.

[November 11, 1890; Tuesday] It was decided that Messrs [William H.] Dickson19 & [M. N.] Stone be engaged at Attorneys with Bros [Franklin S.] Richards & [LeGrand] Young on the Church Suits. By direction of Prest W. Woodruff I signed a divorce bill for EinerJohnson from his wife Ingueldur Arnason, he being in Ireland & married another woman there. I conversed with Bro Chas T. Stoney of Beaver as to his labors in Beaver Stake & found he was a very useful man there & on my report to the Presidency he was released from his missionary call to Great Britain to labor at home.

[November 12, 1890; Wednesday] Letter was reed from Prest Joseph Smith [III] of the Reorganized Church at Lamoni, Iowa, Nov 8th, congratulating Prest W[ilford] Woodruff on his manifesto & the action of the Saints at conference.

The First Presidency had a conversation with Frank J. Cannon and afterwards authorized the delivery to him by Prest L[ewis] W Shurtleffof 1400 shares of the Ogden “Standard” stock of the face value of $7000.00.

It was decided that Samuel Green of South Jordan, who put off his garments 20 years ago & now died, shall not be buried in his Temple clothes.

I met Bro Karl G. Maeser today & was glad to see him

Abraham H. Cannon, B[righam] Y[oung] Hampton & Leonard G. Hardy, with Surveyor Jesse W. Fox Senr.,20 associated,21 as appointed a committee, to locate a Townsite on the Township of land located by the members of the Salt Lake & Deseret Manufacturing & Canal Co. Bro. A[braham] H. Cannon submitted the question of the company or individuals plowing up the 1000 acres of land which was farmed last year & take the crops which shall be raised for pay, the plowing to cost $2.00 per22 acre. The feeling was that individuals might do this ^if they wanted to^. That was my mind, as I would rather pay my part of $200.00 in improving my own land.

I attended the meeting of the Board of Directors of Z[ion’s] S[avings] B[ank] & T[rust] Co. & acted as Secretary of the meeting. The Directors of the Sugar Company talked about locating the Sugar Works at American Fork ^but did not decide ^

Prests Woodruff & Cannon went to the Tabernacle & decided about the changes to be made in the Stands and seating capacity of the choir….

Elder Geo. G. Bywater called & explained the causes of his resigning his position as Master Mechanic of the U[nion] P[acific] Railway Shops. The officer in charge of that Department wanted to make a place for a friend ^&^ had concluded Bro Bywater’s position would do for him. He asked if he had the sanction of the Presidency to engage in other business to suit himself. The Presidency felt to bless him for his faithfulness & integrity and hoped he would be able to engage himself in some lucrative as well as agreeable business.

[November 13, 1890; Thursday] Jos H. Young called and represented that the car belonging to BroJohn W. Young was not suitable for the Presidency on their trip to Mexico. He has been negotiating for another car and expects to obtain one from the Rock Island or Union Pacific Railway. The time for the trip was named as shortly after Thanksgiving day, Nov 27th.

John Henry Smith came in from Colorado last night & called today.

I attended the usual prayer meeting of the Presidency & Apostles at 2 p.m. Prests Woodruff & Cannon, Apostles John H[enry] Smith, J[ohn] W Taylor & A[braham] H Cannon present.

A communication was submitted by Bro A[braham] H Cannon from Ben E Rich & John Q Cannon of a scheme for getting out water and colonizing some of our people in Wyoming.

By direction of Prest Woodruff I signed a bill of Divorce for John S. Rolph of Idaho, his wife ^Martha A. Rolph^ having appeared before Prest Woodruff & the divorce [having] been granted.

Bro Frank Armstrong & Elias Morris & Arthur Stayner met with Prest Woodruff & Cannon & the Sugar Industry was talked over & the location of the plant at American Fork approv[ed]. Bro Armstrong, after pleading his inability & personal labors, agreed to accept the position of chairman of the Executive Board and do the best he can, so as to not neglect his personal business.

[November 14, 1890; Friday] Jas Jack & Nephi Clayton called. The claims of Arthur Pratt & Boliver Roberts for the fees of the Terr Auditor & Treasurer was again being pressed. These brethren had made some offers for compromise which was not accepted. After consideration it was deemed best to do nothing more in the matter, but let Pratt & Roberts commence action if they choose to–and then if necessary compromises may be considered.

Atty F[ranklin] S Richards expects to start for W^ashington D.C. on Monday morning next to attend to the Bassett case before the US Supreme Court.23 He had arranged with U.S. Dist Atty [Charles S.] Varian for an exten[s]ion of time till Dec to file answers in the suits for the Tithing offices, Gardo House & Historians office.

It was decided to engage Messrs [William H.] Dickson & [M. N.] Stone as attorney[s] with Bros Richards & [LeGrand] Young in the Church suits.

It was decided to rent the Large Tabernacle to the Choral Society for a concert, and for Atty F[ranklin] S. Richards while at Washington to obtain an opinion of the Atty General as to the right of the Church to rent that House for charitable purposes. If adverse then we can say to all who want to rent the building that the government wont let us do so.

A prospectus was sent out by the officers of the Sugar Company accompanied by a letter from the First Presidency inviting the Saints to take stock in the company.

Elder Lorenzo Snow called on his way to attend the Sanpete Stake Conference tomorrow & Sunday. M[ilton] H. Hardy, Wm M Palmer &John Quigley were appointed to travel in the interest of the Y[oung] M[en’s] M[utual] I[mprovement] Assoc & the “Contributor” [magazine]….

Subpoenas were served on Prest Geo Q Cannon & Bro Geo F. Gibbs to appear before the Dist Court in the Council House property.

[November 15, 1890; Saturday] By letter from Prest Jesse N Smith & Bp E[dward] M Webb we learn that the Woodruff dam in Arizona has again washed out.

Reed Smoot of Provo was set apart for his mission to Europe, by Apostle A[braham] H. Cannon (mouth) & Geo Reynolds.

[November 17, 1890; Monday] Bro Christian Anderson was released from the Penitentiary last Saturday. He called this morning with Bro Henry W Naisbett. Bro A[nderson] reported a series of conversations with a man in the Pen. who has traveled in Guatemala & other South American Dependencies. The Govt of Guatemala holds out great inducement to colonists, give each [illegible] 160 acres of land, 2 cows & 1 yoke of oxen &c. The Argentine Republic also give[s] greater inducements, 640 acres & a horse team, plow &c. The climate is tropical. Prest Woodruff requested him to write in detail the particulars & send them along.

Bro F[ranklin] S. Richards called & was set apart for his labors at Washington D.C. before the L’S Supreme Court in the ^W[illiam] E^ Bassett case, by Prests Geo. Q. Cannon (mouth), Jos F. Smith & Apostle John Henry Smith. He starts tomorrow morning.

[November 18, 1890; Tuesday] Prest Geo Q Cannon went by the D[enver] & R[io] G[rande] Western train this morning to Lehi & American Fork in the interest of the location of the Sugar Works plant.

[November 19, 1890; Wednesday] I attended a meeting of the Board of the Zion’s Savings Bank & Trust company at 1 p.m.

Prest Woodruff subscribed $5000 in behalf of the church for the^ erection of a church for the Colored people in Salt Lake City & paid Mrs Naisbett the money.

By letter from Bro. George Teasdale at Diaz [Mexico], Nov 16/90, we learn that himself & family arrived there on Oct 23/90. His health is improving.

Bro Joseph Watson called this evening and conversed with Prest Jos F Smith & myself in regard to his building of the Bank for Z[ion’s] S[avings] B[ank] & T[rust] Co. and the difficulties he has in getting a settlement with the Architect Don C[arlos] Young. He made full explanations. It was suggested that he answer D[on] C. Young’s letter & submit to him appointing some practical men to measure the disputed work provided Bro Watson can have one man to accompany them, and if that is not satisfactory to D[on] C. Young that Bro. Watson bring the matter before the Board of the Bank. I was very glad to see Bro Watson.

[November 20, 1890; Thursday] Bro James H. Hart of Paris, ^Idaho,^ called and read a letter from a Mr L[orenzo] D. Hickey of Coldwater, Michigan, in which he says “he has several books of the Law that was taken from the brass plates Nephi took from Laban. These are of great worth to our people and should be in the hands of the Saints.” Bro Hart was requested to make further enquiry in this matter.

I attended the usual Prayer Meeting of the Presidency and Apostles at 2 p.m. in the Gardo House upper parlor, the First Presidency & Apostle John Henry Smith present. Bro Cannon prayed, Messrs W[illiam] H Dickson & [blank] Stone were engaged as attorneys in the Church Suits & paid $2[,]50000 today, total fees $10,00000.

[November 21, 1890; Friday] The Presidency signed a letter to the Presidents of Stakes and Bishops endorsing the History of Utah now being prepared by Bishop O[rson] F. Whitney and recommending it to the Saints & general public.

My Erysipelas is much worse this morning. My face & eyes are swollen. The Presidency have each expressed themselves that I ought to quit work & do something for myself without further delay, which I find I must do.

Bro John W. Young returned from Mexico and called this morning and made a report of his visit. He has an offer to contract for building 1500 miles of railroad in Mexico, and will further consider the matter.

Bro John T Caine called, he goes to Washington D.C. on Sunday. It was suggested to him that he do not propose or urge the admission of Utah, as friends are doing what they can in that matter.

[November 26, 1890; Wednesday] Prest Geo. Q. Cannon met Gov Leland Stanford & Hon M[orris] M. Estee of California at Ogden this afternoon on their way to Washington D.C.

[November 28, 1890; Friday] Bro Wm C. Spence was called to prepare to go East regarding the business of next years emigration.

It was decided that the repairs in the Large Tabernacle in the seating of the Choir &c shall not [involve a] cost to exceed $200000. also that the Tabernacle & the Assembly Hall be heated from the New Boiler House now being erected & a new boiler be obtained large enough for this purpose. Apostles [Francis M.] Lyman, [John Henry] Smith, [HeberJ.] Grant, [John W.] Taylor & [Abraham H.] Cannon were appointed a committee to solicit subscriptions of Stock in the New Sugar Company.

I am continuing my treatment [for Erysipelas] & feel some better.

[December 2, 1890; Tuesday] Bro W[illiam] C. Spence was set apart for his mission to the Eastern States by PrestJos F Smith (mouth) & Bro F[rancis] M Lyman.

Bro Jas Jack & N[ephi] W Clayton called. They have an offer to sell the Inland salt Works to Kansas City parties. It was decided not to sell at present.

Zion’s Savings Bank Building was dedicated this afternoon. Prest Geo Q Cannon offered the dedicatory praver. There were present Prests Woodruff & Geo Q Cannon, Elders L[orenzo] Snow, F[rancis] M Lyman, J[ohn] H Smith, H[eber] J Grant, M[arriner] W. Merrill, A[braham] H. Cannon, Geo Reynolds, A[ngus] M Cannon, D[on] C Young, LeGrand Young, B[righam] H. Schettler.James Jack & the employees of the Bank. The Hotel Templeton in the building opened today.24

[December3, 1890; Wednesday] The Apostles held a fast meeting at the Gardo House at 10 O’clock a.m.

[December 4, 1890; Thursday] Bro Moses Thatcher submitted an offer to buy 50,000, or 62,000, acres of land in Juarez, Mexico, which is very valuable for Timber & Ranch for some S 12,50000, less 25% for the whole amount of land. Bro T[hatcher] can pay for one half if the Presidency can take the other half. No action was taken.

Bro Wm Budge called and Idaho affairs were considered. He was authorized & instructed to call to his aid and take such measures as he may deem proper, to meet with such persons at the Seat of government in Idaho in the Republican Party, and to give such assurances that the majority of the Mormon voters will remember their friends in the future, just as they did in Wyoming, if the Legislature will not hamper them with inimical legislation, and the whole subject matter was placed under his direction. Bro R. S. Spence was instructed to work under the direction of Bro Budge.

I attended the usual Prayer meeting of the Presidency & Apostles at the Gardo House at 2 p.m. Present Prests W[ilford] Woodruff, G[eorge] Q Cannon, J[oseph] F Smith, Elder L[orenzo] Snow, F[ranklin] D Richards, M[oses] Thatcher, F[rancis] M Lvman.John H[enry] Smith, H[eber] J Grant, A[nthon] H Lund & A[braham] H. Cannon. F[ranklin] D Richards [prayed] in opening & M[oses] Thatcher in circle.

After meeting by my request, Apostles F[rancis] M Lyman, J[ohn] H Smith & H[eber] J. Grant anointed me & administered to me for my health. Bro Lyman anointed & Bro Smith mouth. I had some talk with Bro. A[nthon] H Lund about Manti Temple matters &C.–& sent kind regards to Bro Wells, Sister C. & others. I had a letter sent to Bro Wm D.Johnson Jr. in reply to a part of his letter to me about Bro. Browns recommend.

[December 5, 1890; Friday] A telegram was received from Bro F[ranklin] S. Richards at Washington D.C. in which he says, “Have ascertained Presidents message does not let it be understood that he will favor disfranchisement, but that he is opposed to present admission of Utah. Attorney General does not question our right to all of the Temple Block. He thinks you have the right to let Tabernacle for Concerts and Lectures.”

The question of selling a part of the Land adjoining the Deseret News Building, also of organizing the Deseret News Company into a private company & selling the church interest therein was talked over but not decided. The Presidency met with Mr Alex Badlam of Cal[ifornia] & Bp H[iram] B. Clawson.

Prests Woodruff & Cannon had an interview with Hon. [Otto] Cedercrantz of Sweden, Arbiter in the international controversy concerning Samoa.

[December 8, 1890; Monday] Sister Zina D. H. Young submitted a knitted garment, som[e]thing like our garments, which is made in the East, and asked if such may be marked & have a collar put on it, and used as our Temple garment. It was decided that such garments should not be used in lieu of the pattern given.

Elder James Moyle, Supt of the Temple Block work, died this morning of Typhoid pneumonia after a sickness of about one week. This was quite unexpected.

[December 9, 1890; Tuesday] It was decided to have a 60 horsepower horizontal boiler made by Bro Haines & Co. to furnish heat & power for the Tabernacle Assembly Hall & Temple, also to light these buildings with electric[i]ty & furnish power for whatever mav be needed, and to properly pipe & wire these buildings, the boiler to be taken out of the assembly Hall, also that 300 chairs be procured for the choir.

$35,000.00 was raised by the First Presidency to help meet the 1st payment on the New Sugar Company plant.

It was decided to move the museum into one of the lower rooms of the Zion’s Savings Bank Building, 18×40 feet, the rent to be $12[,]500 per month.

[December 10, 1890; Wednesday] Bro Ira N. Hinckley called. It was decided to locate the Millard Stake Academy at Fillmore.

I attended the meeting of the Board of Directors of Zion’s Saving’s Bank & Trust Co at 1 p.m.

It was decided to organize by selecting and appointing a Board Trustees for the holding[s of] the [land] bequeathed by the late President B[righam] Young & to erect a college therein.25 LeGrand Young & Rich W Young to write in, framing the necessary papers.

[December 11, 1890; Thursday] Bro J. L Dalton of Ogden called & Prest Woodruff gave him a recommend for his 2nd anointings.

I attended the usual prayer meeting of the Presidency & Apostles at 2 p.m. Present Prest W[ilford] Woodruff & Apostles F[rancis] M Lyman, J[ohn] H Smith, H[eber] J Grant & A[braham] H. Cannon.

[December 12, 1890; Friday] $150.00 was appropriated to Mr. C. A. Hall in26 behalf of the Hedrickite Church, at Independence Mo.

By telegram from Bro John T Caine we learn that the [new] Edmunds bill, legislating for the distribution of the personal property of the Church, was up in the House of Reps. yesterday and went over till next Saturday. He hopes to kill it then.

Prests Woodruff & Cannon attended the funeral services of the late Elder James Moyle at the assembly Hall at 1 p.m. and each spoke a short time.

[December 13, 1890; Saturday] The Church property bill was up in the House of Reps. today & was postponed till next Tuesday. We learn this by telegram from Bro [John T.] Caine.

[December 15, 1890; Monday] The Presid[ing] Bishops [William B.] Preston & [John R.] Winder called & submitted a list of stakes who should be entitled to an increase[d] percent for receiving and disbursing tithing[:] Cassia, Kanab, St George, Unitah, Millard & Snowflake to have 13% and Malad, Maricopa, San Luis, San Juan, St Joseph & St. Johns to have 15% and all the other Stakes 10%. A circular letter on the settlement of tithing to the President of Stakes & Bishops was also read & approved.

The settlements in Northern Canada will be organiz[ed] into the Alberta Stake of Zion with Bro Chas O Card as President, and until such organization is effected Bro Card will report to the 1st Presidency & Presiding Bishopric the affairs of said Stake.

The Presidency attended a meeting of the Board of Directors of Z.C.M.I. at 2 p.m. to 4.15 p.m.

[December 17, 1890; Wednesday] Atty F[ranklin] S. Richards arrived from Washington D.C. this morning and called. He reported his labors while absent. He had appeared before the U.S. Supreme Court in the Bassett Case. Had interviews with Prest [Benjamin] Harrison, Secretary James G.] Blain, Atty Geni [William H. H.] Miller, Senator [Shelby M.] Cullom, Rep [William M.] Stewart of V[ermon]t, ^Rep. Taylor^ & others.

Bp Miller Atwood of the 13th Ward died this morning ^at 12.30^. I attended the usual meeting of the Directors of Z[ion’s] S[avings] B[ank] & T[rust] Co at 1 p.m. It is expected to declare a dividend at the close of this month.

Prest Geo. Q. Cannon had a lengthy interview with John Beck on Bullion, Beck Cos affairs & afterwards explained [them] to Prests Woodruff & Smith & myself….

Bp W[illiam] B. Preston submitted the name of Bro Charles Livingston to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Bro James Moyle as Supt of the Temple Block. No action taken.

[December 18, 1890; Thursday] I have been thinking of Prest Geo Q. Cannons interview with Bro John Beck and my suggestion to him yesterday that he would be justified in taking any course he thought proper to make Bro Beck deal justly by him–of course only in the Church Courts, and I now feel that he should not go before the Church Courts with his case, but see Bro Beck again and leave the moral as well as the equitable obligation upon him to do what is right by Bro. Cannon. I so explained myself to Bro. Cannon this morning and it met his mind fully & he so explained himself to Presidents Woodruff & Smith.

The following telegram from Hon. John T Caine at Washington [D.C.] was reed, “No morning hour Tuesday or Wednesday. Church property bill remains unfinished business in the next morning hour, working to defeat it, result doubted.”

The following telegram was sent to him, “Beware of [Eli H.] Murray he is ^in the^ employ of our enemies here.”

Bro L[eonard] G. Hardy called again for our money on our Deseret land & canal account. Prest Woodruff paid his. Bros Cannon, Smith & myself promised to do our best to raise our share. But money is very scarce just now.

[December 25, 1890; Thursday] This is Christmas day, the 34th anniversary of my wedding with Elizabeth. Elizabeth Ann & George & family came from over the river. I shaved & dressed myself and mingled with the family all day. We had a nice family dinner which I enjoyed very much, and felt well all dav in the society of wife and children. Elizabeth Ann, George & Children went home in the evening. We had all our family at home but Leonard & Thomas.

[December 31, 1890; Wednesday] This is the last day of the year 1890. The year has been a very eventful one and has past into eternity with its record of good and evil. I feel that I have just cause to be thankful for the many blessings I have received, as also my family. We have all been preserved in life and in the faith of the Gospel. The Church has not suffered as our enemies have desired, but has come off victorious and the Gospel is being more generally preached in ^his nation & in the world.^ …

I had the family together and we had a good time in making all wrongs right so as to start the new year aright. I then offered prayer.

_______________

NOTES to Chapter 7:

1. Heber J. Grant reported: “A few days ago in the Gardo House Prest Woodruff, Smith and I set apart brother John Nuttall to go to Washington [D.C.] to labor with John T. Caine and Bros. John Morgan and B H Roberts to go east and write and speak in the interests of our people and to do what they could to correct the ideas of the people that had been engendered by the late decision of Judge Anderson” (Grant. Diary, Jan. 1, 1890, typescript in D. Michael Quinn Papers. Special Collections, Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; original in Archives, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah).

2. Independence, Jackson County, Missouri, was to be the center of the LDS Church, a new “Zion,” as it is called in the revelations of Joseph Smith. On August 3, 1831, Joseph Smith and six others met and dedicated a spot of land west of the court house as the site for a temple. Saints congregated in Independence but were expelled in 1833-34 by Missourians who resented the claim that Cod had given these outsiders their land. LDS belief holds that Zion will one day be redeemed and the temple built.

3. Nuttall wrote “thanks going”.

4. The Senate was considering statehood for Idaho. The proposed Idaho constitution (Section 3, Article 6) would prohibit anyone from voting, serving on a jury, or holding public office who was a “bigamist or polygamist, or is living in what is known as patriarchal, plural, or celestial marriage,”or “who is a member of, or contributes to the support, aid, or encouragement” of any group that “teaches, advises, counsels, encourages, or aids any person to enter into bigamy.” See Edwin Brown Firmage and Richard Collin Mangrum, Zion in the Courts: A Legal History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 235.

Simultaneously, the U.S. Supreme Court was considering Davis v. Beason on the legality of the Idaho test oath, which excluded Mormons from citizenship in Idaho Territory (Ibid., 233). Nuttall’s references to other “church cases” (e.g., Jan. 6, 13, 27) included a challenge to the federal confiscation of church property in The Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints v. United States and a defense of territorial auditor Nephi W. Clayton, a Mormon who was summarily dismissed from office by Utah’s governor, in Dickson v. Clayton. Nuttall will report in subsequent entries when Idaho receives statehood, its prohibition against Mormons intact, and the church loses all its cases before the Supreme Court.

5. In ruling against Clayton, the Supreme Court upheld the provisions of the Utah Territorial Organization Act of 1850, granting the territorial governor power to appoint all but local office holders. See Kenneth D. Driggs, “The Prosecutions Begin:Defining Cohabitation in 1885,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 21 (Spring 1988): 123.

6. The Desert Land Act of 1877 allowed an individual to purchase 640 acres of land at $1.25 per acre, by comparison to the smaller 160-acre tracts allowed by the Preemption and Homestead Acts. One had to demonstrate the land could not produce crops without irrigation to take advantage of the desert designation (Roy M. Robbins, Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776-1936 [Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962], 219-20). By “Deseret Land,” Nuttall means the Deseret and Salt Lake Agricultural and Manufacturing and Canal Company in Millard County.

7. Among other irregularities, the Liberal Party ran four men for office in Salt Lake City who were themselves election registrars; prior to the election, both parties had brought in rural people and migrant workers to register to vote in the city. Wells lost his bid for reelection as city recorder. See Edward Leo Lyman, Political Deliverance: The Mormon Quest for Utah Statehood (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1986), 115-118.

8. The text reads “the they” here.

9. The College of Physicians and Surgeons would later become part of the University of Maryland. The Academy of Music, unconnected to the medical college, was no doubt rented for its spacious performance hall.

10. Nuttall was still under threat of arrest. Cf. entries for June 9, 10.

11. This was the first gathering of the International Conference of American States (colloquially the Pan-American Congress), which brought together delegates from countries throughout the Americas. See “Pan-American Conferences,” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, www.britannica.com.

12. The Cullom-Struble Bill would have disenfranchised Mormons everywhere, not just in Idaho and Utah. It was introduced into the Senate by Shelby Cullom (R-I11.) on April 10 and in the House of Representatives by Isaac S. Struble (R-Iowa) the next day (Lyman, Political Deliverance, 124-26).

13. It took seventeen months for the court to render a decision in this case. The decision declared, in part: “Then looking at the case as the finding of the facts presents it, we have before us–Congress had before it–a contumacious organization, wielding by its resources an immense power in the Territory of Utah, and employing those resources and that power in constantly attempting to oppose, thwart, and subvert the legislation of Congress and the will of the government of the United States. Under these circumstances we have no doubt of the power of Congress to do as it did” (Late Corporation v. United States, qtd. in Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830-1890 [Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958], 375). It was, in part, this decision that led Wilford Woodruff to issue his Manifesto four months later.

14. Little Round Top commanded Cemetery Ridge held by General George Mead and his Union troops. The Union repulsed Confederate advances and maintained its position, resulting in ultimate victory. The battle at Gettysburg took place on July 1-3, 1863. See Thomas H.Johnson, The Oxford Companion to American History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 332.

15. This was the manifesto declaring an end to Mormon polygamy–although the practice would continue sub rosa for some twenty-five years among the church’s hierarchy and in the Canadian and Mexican colonies, as well as in a few remote areas of the United States such as Star Valley, Wyoming, and San Luis Valley, Colorado (D. Michael Quinn, “LDS Church Authority and New Plural Marriages, 1890-1904,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 18 [Spring 1985], 9-105). A year earlier, Nuttall wrote that he “trembled” at the thought of President Woodruff putting an end to plural marriage (see diary entry for Nov. 24, 1889). One can only guess at his reason for his silence now–his studied avoidance of any hint of a reaction–but the intervening months must have prepared him for this startling announcement (but cf. entry for Oct. 26, 1891, for his wife Sophia’s belated reaction). Although the church would require time to internalize and adapt to the message, the church would no longer be on a collision course with the U.S. government. For the text of the announcement, see “Official Declaration-1,” canonized in the Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

16. The word “consecrating” is written over an illegible word.

17. Charles Ellis was a sympathetic non-Mormon who lived in Utah and wrote and spoke about the Latter-day Saints to outside audiences.

18. “Part” is written over some illegible letters.

19. William H. Dickson was a former United States Attorney who had prosecuted members of the LDS hierarchy (Thomas G. Alexander. Things in Heaven and Earth: The Life and Times of Wilford Woodruff, a Mormon Prophet [Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991], 240, 271).

20. The “S” in “Senr.” is written over the letter “J”.

21. Nuttall has a superfluous “to” here.

22. The word “per” is written over an illegible word.

23. In Bassett v. United States, the Supreme Court decided that, based on the Edmunds-Tucker Act, a plural wife could be compelled to testify against her husband (Firmage and Mangrum, Zion in the Courts, 195).

24. Marriner Wood Merrill reported that “at 4 P.M. [he] met with Prest. Woodruff and the Twelve at Zions Saving Bank and Templeton Hotel Building, where said Building wa[s] dedicated for Banking & Hotel Business. [The ] Dedicator)- Prayer was Offered bv Prest Geo Q. Cannon after servi[c]es I in Company with Prest Woodruff went up the Elevator to [the] Dining Room on the 6th Floor and back down the stairs Stoping on even” floor and looked through all the Rooms, 70 in Number, which are very fine & comodious. This New Hotel opens tomorrow, Dec 3rd, for Guest[s] and will be run Entirely by Our people of Which a company is formed, Don Carlos Young being the President &c.” (Merrill, Diary, Dec. 2, 1890, typescript in Quinn Papers; original in LDS Archives).

25. This would become the LDS College in Salt Lake City.

26. The word “in” is written over an illegible word.