excerpt – The Council of Fifty

Foreword

by Klaus J. Hansen

The Council of Fifty was organized in the spring of 1844 to oversee political and temporal affairs such as Joseph Smith’s candidacy for the presidency of the United States. After the founder’s murder, the council was reconstituted under the auspices of the Quorum of the Twelve, meaning especially Brigham Young, to oversee the move to the Rocky Mountains and establish political hegemony. Flourishing intermittently until the late 1880s, the council was allowed to fade away, to be nearly forgotten except for the few passing notices LDS chronicler B. H. Roberts made to it in his monumental History of the Church and by a few others: future LDS Church Historian G. Homer Durham, who discussed it in a 1944 article; Fawn M. Brodie, who showed some interest in the topic while writing her biography of Joseph Smith; and by non-Mormon sociologist Thomas F. O’Dea, whose view of the council was that it manifested incipient nationalism in the LDS culture. None of the writers achieved sufficient access to documents to allow them to judge how broad or restricted the council’s influence might have been.

The Quest for Empire by Klaus HansenAnother spark of interest came with the publication of Robert Cleland’s and Juanita Brooks’s A Mormon Chronicle: The Diaries of John D. Lee, 1848–1876 in 1955, followed by speculation on the part of LDS scholars Hyrum Andrus and James R. Clark, as well as from two fairly brash BYU undergraduates, Alfred Bush and myself. Bush called my attention to the council while he was reading the Lee diaries, and later when I was casting about for a research topic for a senior history seminar with Professor Richard Poll, I produced a paper on the early government and economics of Utah Territory. After that, Bush and I continued to dig for information and eventually expanded our thinking and committed it to an interpretive paper that remained unpublished. However, having pursued the topic on the M.A. level at BYU and then as a Ph.D. student at Wayne State in Detroit, I saw the fruits of my interest come into print a decade later in a volume I called Quest for Empire: The Political Kingdom of God and the Council of Fifty in Mormon History, published by Michigan State University Press. My reservations regarding a Mormon topic being supervised by non-Mormon professors had been countered by the realization that there was value in having outsiders critique my work.

Ten years may seem like a long time to bring forth a modest, 237-page book, including notes and back matter. Yet, I found documentation elusive. As I was doing the research, it appeared to me that I was sailing in a fog. The resulting study could only be considered tentative, awaiting further research to confirm or contradict what I could perceive as the most likely interpretation. As I put it, the effort to flesh out the origin and purpose of the council was a “Herculean task.” To my surprise, a gifted historian answered the call: D. Michael Quinn, whose sources for his two-volume Mormon Hierarchy series confirmed the council’s influence in a few critical deliberations. Equally impressive, if more interpretive, was Marvin S. Hill’s Quest for Refuge: The Mormon Flight from American Pluralism.

To that impressive heritage of researchers, whose curiosity and tenacity kept them pushing for more information, now comes a bright historian who is himself up to the task of expanding on what went before him. How has he accomplished this? By knocking on archival doors that were closed to us and by refusing to take no for an answer. When the church declined to allow him access to documents, he went elsewhere and found typescripts. Add to that the importuning of the insiders who have been curious to see what has been kept under lock and key for over a century and a half, and the miracle of disclosure seems to be about to come to pass. The Church Historian’s Press recently announced that it will even­tually release the sequestered minutes to the Nauvoo Council of Fifty meetings, perhaps also documents in the associated collections that have remained closed. When this happens—and they have promised to publish the minutes in book form—their effort will be a good complement to the current volume.

Some may think the minutes themselves are the all-important, and sufficient, record of the council, but I suspect not. Context is equally important. We don’t yet know exactly what the contents of the minutes might be, but I believe the church’s editors will find themselves hard pressed to produce anything as thorough and fine as the present volume. In some respects, that is because Rogers assembled sources the hard way and scraped together loose ends—all the better because he was able to confirm the authenticity, relevance, and context for the minutes or protocols by drawing on diaries, reminiscences, and the other documents that tell not only what happened, and without being written in dry secretarial prose, but interpreting it through the notes of the eyewitness participants. In addition to that, Rogers’s annotation gives necessary background information that would otherwise be lost on most readers. He has not only uncovered the details of what happened but has brought the meetings to life in the words of the contemporary inductees and shown us their significance.

His work, and that of others for whom space does not allow mention, have caused me to reconsider some of my original assumptions. It is now clear that some of my deductions were wrong. For instance, it seemed to me at the time that Daniel H. Wells and Thomas L. Kane might have been among the non-LDS members of the council, but now the more up-to-date evidence shows it not to have been the case—and this is just one example of the small details the current volume clarifies. Of course, I am equally surprised to find how much of what I assumed was actually right. In any case, the material Rogers has assembled here is impressive. He has wisely incorporated the material into his volume that was so impressively collected by Quinn a generation earlier and cites my own work and that of many other predecessors in our collective endeavor.

The book is certainly destined to become essential reading for future Mormon historians, as well as for the interested public who will have to draw their own conclusions about what it all means. For instance, to what degree was the Kingdom of God intended to be a literal and permanent government, as opposed to a millennial or more metaphorical concept? Did Joseph Smith intend himself to be an earthly king or a future heavenly ruler only? Readers could do no better than to consult this comprehensive collection of primary source documents to help them discover, in their own minds, the answers to such important questions.

The Council of Fifty: A Documentary HistoryI am happy to see that The Council of Fifty: A Documentary History is part of what seems to be a series sponsored by the Smith-Pettit Foundation and published by Signature Books, looking in depth at the documentary sources for the Nauvoo era of Mormon history. One volume, Joseph Smith’s Quorum of the Anointed, 1842–1845, shows how proponents of plural marriage were initiated into the ceremonies that became the foundation for the church’s temple rituals. The editors Gary J. Bergera and Devery S. Anderson were, like Jedediah Rogers, thorough in their research. Another invaluable volume in the series is John S. Dinger’s The Nauvoo City and High Council Minutes, which shows the uncertainty and hysteria surrounding the decision-making in the city of Saints as things started to unravel.

The current volume is logically connected to the previous studies from Smith-Pettit and Signature Books in elucidating the radicalism that was pervasive in Nauvoo, which we see expressed in plural marriage and the temple rites, especially the shared secrecy surrounding these institutions and practices. The three volumes are bound together in other ways as well, in that the Council of Fifty determined policy that was implemented by the city council and then, in the west, by the territorial legislature. It is worth noting that the Council of Fifty, like the members of the other groups in question, were sworn to secrecy in order to help serve as a shield for plural marriage—the practice that was to be discussed and regulated under the laws of the Kingdom of God. This new volume, then, forms an integral part of the ongoing story. In my opinion, the series ranks among the most important projects in Mormon historical editing.

Editor’s Introduction

Mormon founder Joseph Smith occupies a privileged place among American religious figures for his innovative and enduring theological concepts. He kept the church vital through periodic bursts of heavenly inspiration, venturing outside the bounds of traditional Christianity. The three-tiered heaven, for example, and the celestial family relationships are among the teachings he promoted that, although enormously appealing to many people of his day, were sometimes dismissed by critics as the deluded imaginations of a fanatic. His status as an original thinker and religious visionary can hardly be questioned.

Perhaps his boldest innovation, one central to his life’s work but lesser known than the others, was the establishment of an earthly, or political, kingdom of God. From the beginning of his career, he and his followers had a high opinion of their place in the world. They believed from the start, when the church was organized in 1830, that the movement would one day encompass the entire globe as the proverbial “stone which is cut out of the mountain without hands” and that it would gain momentum as it “roll[ed] forth, until it has filled the whole earth” (D&C 65:2). One of Smith’s counselors, Sidney Rigdon, reflected in an 1844 speech that he and the modern-day prophet “had things to say to one another that nobody else knew of—[how] all nations [would] flock to [their message]—whole nations [would be] born in one day—we talked such big things. … We were maturing plans 14 years ago which we can now tell.”1

In Illinois Smith developed specific objectives and practical means for accomplishing these goals. One of his clerks, William Clayton, wrote that his employer had received a revelation on April 7, 1842, directing him to “bear off the kingdom,” meaning to seize the opportunity to establish “the Kingdom of God and his Laws, with the Keys and power thereof, and judgment in the hands of his servants, Ahman Christ” (those acting in the place of Christ).2 By 1844, fourteen years after the church’s founding, Smith’s home-grown religion had become not only a religious force but a political one, Smith himself feeling empowered to act boldly in the face of either outside resistance or internal dissent. In establishing what had been referred to as God’s earthly kingdom, he organized a secret political legislature he called the General Council or Council of Fifty, named after the number of men prescribed to comprise it. Its ultimate purpose was to establish a worldly kingdom that would usurp all others and receive Jesus at his Second Coming. Clayton believed the fifty replicated “the Grand Council amongst the Gods when the organization of this world was contemplated.”3

In such innovations, Smith attempted to replicate on earth the organization he perceived to exist in heaven. As historian Klaus Hansen observed, Mormonism was among a constellation of millenarian-­minded sects and churches in antebellum America, all of which had charismatic leaders but none as bold as inserting himself into the sacred narrative.4 Mormons were to be center stage in the unfolding cosmic drama of the parousia, according to Smith. Their work would be to build a city of God. Smith considered this to be part of the “restoration of all things” spoken of in the New Testament, even though his model for the new society was more like that of the Old Testament under Moses than of Jesus in the New Testament. Joseph particularly had in mind the leading role he himself would play as a new Moses.5

He was ultimately unable to live long enough to realize his vision of a divinely led political kingdom on earth. Council members may have believed, with Benjamin F. Johnson, that “the embryo kingdom of God upon the earth” would grow until it achieved its destiny of world domination.6 But under Brigham Young and John Taylor, Smith’s successors in the Utah-based church, the glories envisioned by Smith and his followers were not to be, subsumed as they were by the real-world workings of temporal politics and geopolitical power.

Beginnings

In 1843 Joseph Smith asked the men of the pineries mission in Wisconsin Territory whether they knew where additional Mormon settlers might gather. A few of the Wisconsin men responded: “We have in our minds to go to the table-lands of Texas … to a point we may find to be the most eligible, there locate, and let it be a place of gathering for all the South.” The rich harvests they anticipated would contribute to the stability of “the kingdom.” One of the authors of that letter, George Miller, believed “a majority of the voters” in the Republic of Texas could be converted to Mormonism, thereby establishing a “dominion” within the United States that would flourish after Smith was elected U.S. president.7 To contemporary readers, Mil­ler’s confidence appears absurd, but at the time, when the Republic of Texas was carved out of the vast Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas in 1836 with about 50,000 inhabitants, 8,000 of whom were Mexicans and 5,000 were slaves, it seemed plausible enough.8 Lyman Wight, a member of the pineries mission who was later sent to found a colony in Texas, believed “the Church stands regularly organized to bear off the kingdom triumphantly over the head of every opposition, and to establish Zion no more to be thrown down forever.”9

The pineries letter served as the catalyst for the secret political legislature. The evidence surrounding the group’s formation is tantalizing. A month after its initial organization, a meeting was held on April 11, for which Clayton offered a terse but intriguing notation indicating that Smith was “voted our P. P. & King with loud Hosannas.”10 A few days later, Smith publicized a new “theo-democracy, where God and the people hold the power to conduct the affairs of men in rightousness[,] and where liberty, free trade, and sailor’s rights, and the protection of life and property shall be maintained inviolate, for the benefit of ALL.”11 Smith envisioned it as a vehicle for expanding the church’s temporal influence. The theocratic government would serve as an important bridge to the Millennium, at which time they would hand over political power to Christ. The newly inducted members of the council spoke of grand things and brimmed with confidence. “The precious instructions which I received in the councils of the Church during that winter and spring [1844] were indeed more than all I had learned before in my life,” wrote Erastus Snow. “But still we felt that the storms of persecution were gathering thick around us.”12

The men who constituted the council came from Smith’s inner circle (see Table 1). About three-quarters of the male portion of the Quorum of Anointed were inducted into the Council of Fifty.13 The same men who ran the church supervised the council, including virtually every member of the governing quorums of the First Presidency, Twelve Apostles, and Presiding Bishopric. Smith thought to include three men not affiliated with the LDS church—Uriah Brown, Edward Bonney, and Marenus Eaton—but their involvement was minimal and brief. Brigham Young dropped them from the council as soon as he took charge of it. Early leaders may have drawn an academic distinction between the church and kingdom, but in practice the two were inseparable. Upon initiation, new members were told secret keywords in a ritual recalling practices in Mormon temple worship.14 Council members prayed, sang hymns, and spoke in religious terms. Sworn to secrecy, they considered themselves chosen members of a “living constitution” whose acts and decisions reflected God’s will, transcending the U.S. Constitution and any other temporal document.

Table 1  |  Council of Fifty Members, 1844

Joseph Smith               Levi Richards                John Taylor

Samuel Bent               John M. Bernhisel          Alexander Badlam

John Smith                 John D. Parker             Charles C. Rich

Alpheus Cutler             Hyrum Smith                George J. Adams

Uriah Brown                Lucien Woodworth         William Smith

Reynolds Cahoon         Brigham Young              Orson Pratt

Ezra Thayre               Heber C. Kimball           Marenus G. Eaton

William W. Phelps       Orson Spencer              Almon W. Babbitt

Amos Fielding             James Emmett               Amasa M. Lyman

William Marks             Philip B. Lewis             Joseph W. Coolidge

Sidney Rigdon             Elias Smith                 Orrin P. Rockwell

John P. Greene            Orson Hyde                 Jedediah M. Grant

George Miller             Samuel James                George A. Smith

Newel K. Whitney       Wilford Woodruff          Erastus Snow

Peter Haws                Parley P. Pratt             Lorenzo D. Wasson

Lyman Wight               Edward Bonney             Benjamin F. Johnson

Joseph Fielding           David D. Yearsley          Willard Richards

Cornelius P. Lott         David S. Hollister          William Clayton15

The Grand Council’s immediate objective was to locate new settlements for Latter-day Saints beyond Nauvoo. Any expansion would need to be blessed with the same godly approval the former gathering places in Ohio and Missouri had received. Joseph made plans to send council members on reconnaissance trips to California, Oregon, Texas, Vancouver, and Wisconsin. Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt of the Twelve Apostles carried a memorial to Washington, D.C., to seek authorization to “raise a Company of one hundred thousand armed volunteers in the United States and Territories” and protect the emigrants to the Far West.16 Other apostles traveled to the eastern states to campaign for Smith’s candidacy for United States president.17

By June 1844, Smith’s plans for the council were unraveling. Congress did not take his memorial seriously. His former counselor in the First Presidency, William Law, released a prospectus for a newspaper to be called the Nauvoo Expositor that included a teaser about Joseph Smith being a “self-constituted monarch,” and the first issue of the paper, published on June 7, indicated that the next issue would be devoted in part to the secret government that had been meeting under Smith’s direction.18 This signaled that the sacred confidence of the General Council had been violated. Distraught, Smith told Clayton to get rid of the council records by burning, hiding, or burying them. Clayton chose the latter. As the events of that month progressed and Smith convinced the Nauvoo city council to destroy the opposition press, outsiders arrested the prophet and jailed him in a neighboring town, where he was assassinated, along with his brother Hyrum, on June 27. Clayton retrieved the buried records and, although they were damaged, later uncovered them and copied them into three small notebooks.19

Governance, Dormancy, and Revival

After Smith’s death, the church membership continued to speak about forming a new society and government. Albert P. Rockwood wrote that the judgments of God “have now commenced & like a whirlpool will sweep our inhabitants off the U. States.”20 The only observance of Independence Day in Nauvoo in 1845 was, according to Irene Hascall Pomeroy, “about two hundred and fifty little boys” playing military on the parade grounds. She explained to her fam­ily in North New Salem that Nauvoo Mormons had lost faith in the United States and would not honor its birthday. There was too little “liberty and independence … to be celebrated,” she elaborated.21 The church was looking beyond the boundaries of the United States where, as Apostle Parley P. Pratt noted, they might find “a country where we shall have room to expand.”22 Pratt’s younger brother Orson thought the Kingdom of God was “the only legal government that can exist in any part of the universe. All other governments are illegal and unauthorized.”23

In an 1846 letter to U.S. President James K. Polk, Brigham Young confided that “love of country” was “well nigh extinguished” among the Mormons but still smoldering. They retained a qualified commitment to the United States and hoped to see a territorial government established upon reaching their destination.24 Young turned to the Council of Fifty for a time as he searched for a governing structure. Under his direction it assumed a leading role in the great migration to the Salt Lake Valley. Once there, the council helped direct the temporal affairs in the valley for the first few years even though Young had consolidated power within the offices of the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve Apostles.25 Wary of any outside threat to his authority, he lacked Smith’s vision for the council. When he was named president of the church in 1847, Young said that “if you throw the K[ingdom] [of God] into the Quo[rum] of 50[,] they cant manage it.”26

He still found it useful to occasionally convene the council when practical matters arose for which he needed broad support or when an issue needed to be studied and summarized. While the church was still in Nauvoo, the Council of Fifty pored over John C. Frémont’s report of his explorations in the West. It was at that time that Young settled on “Upper California” as the place to relocate his people, with an eye to the Great Basin stretching from the Bear River Valley to the north to the Salt Lake Valley to the south as a possible place. When the pioneer expedition arrived at the Great Salt Lake, Young’s plan was to establish a state within the union that would be called Deseret, and he imagined that the Council of Fifty would serve as its legislature. At a council meeting held December 9, 1848, the decision was already reached to petition the United States for statehood. That would only be the first of several unsuccessful attempts to create home rule within the U.S. umbrella. It was anticipated that statehood, rather than territorial status, would allow popular election of officers and would guarantee theocratic hegemony.

As the de facto government in the Salt Lake Valley, the council became bogged down in addressing such mundane issues as how to restrict livestock from wandering into adjacent pastures and convince bishops to build bridges over streams within their jurisdictions. The council ordered and directed an extermination campaign against animal “predators” that were destroying crops and livestock and keeping the “citizens in Great Salt Lake City” up at night because of the noise produced by, for instance, “wolves howling at night.”27 Hunting parties were organized, and within a few months the LDS homeland had been purged of approximately 800 wolves, 409 foxes, 31 minx, two bears, two wolverines, two wild cats, untold raptors, and other “wasters and destroyers,” as they were called.28 On occasion the council contemplated their defense if the time came that they would have to fight against American or Mexican troops. In an 1851 meeting, they considered Uriah Brown’s proposed “invention of liquid fire to destroy an army & navy.” Brown, hoping for financial support, assured the council that his invention would destroy “any number of vessels” simultaneously.29

The council freely discussed these and other matters and operated for the most part as a democratic body, each member having an equal say and with Young acting as the standing chairman. Like Smith, he was apparently anointed king and priest over the entire world, although the precise date of this action is unknown.30 The council elected out of its membership a clerk and recorder. In a formal manner, they all sat according to age and conducted roll-call votes from oldest to youngest, having been told that this was the “ancient order” of things.31 What may have been closer to antiquity than democracy was how unruly the proceedings sometimes became, when their best efforts to maintain decorum broke down. George A. Smith, a member of the Twelve, referred to the group in 1849 as “a Debating School,” implying parliamentary disorder.32 Members were encouraged to speak freely, and they did. However, they were also told that dissent was not allowed outside of the proceedings or within the group after a decision had been reached. The council’s chair had the last word if unanimity could not be otherwise achieved. In some cases Young turned his clout in the council into personal advantage, for instance convincing the members to grant him and his counselor Heber Kimball the “privilege of fencing in as much of the table lands and the spurs of the mountains east of the city, as they wish for pasturage.”33

Young was, as we see in the records, a complicated man. Con­sider his warning to merchants whose prices he thought were too high. Furious at this, he told the council they should “Just take [the merchandise] & distribute amoung the Poors, & those that have & will not divide willingly May be thankful that their Heads are not found wallowing in the Snow.”34

Young’s forceful style brought order to the territory but contributed to the splintering of the church, then spread throughout the Midwest and elsewhere. The apostle, Lyman Wight, remained committed to the instructions he received from Joseph Smith to settle in Texas. Seeing Wight’s refusal to come to Utah as an act of apostasy, Young removed Wight’s name from church records. In March 1851, Wight wondered “by what authority Governors of States” like Young “cuts off or disfellowships members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.” Young’s civil appointment had gone to his head, Wight insinuated. Answering his own question, the Texas apostle said, “Now Sir, if it is a crime for me to come to Texas as one of the Twelve Apostles, under the direction of Joseph Smith instead of going to Salt Lake Valley,” wasn’t it equally wrong for Young to be in Salt Lake instead of Texas? “You had ought to be [a]ware how you send out men from that region of country into any other country to build up churches,” because his civil authority ended where Texas began, Wight warned. As an apostle, the Texan held the same ecclesiastical standing as Young, he maintained. “I have not taught as much as one word contrary to the doctrine of Jesus Christ as held forth by brother Joseph Smith during his whole life,” Wight emphasized, and thereby did not deserve excommunication. The instructions he received from the Council of Fifty in Nauvoo trumped whatever authority Young thought he had to dictate to those who were not in Utah.35 In the ensuing struggle for preeminence, Young similarly brought Peter Haws and Lucien Woodworth to trial for asserting that the fifty were superior to the Quorum of the Twelve, to which Haws complained that “the Twelve had swallowed up thirty eight.” In Haws’s mind, the apostles had taken the church and government away from the rightful rulers.36

Although in the past some historians have speculated that the council served as a shadow government in Utah after 1851, it now appears that it was non-functional; many of its members continued to be involved in territorial and local politics but were otherwise out of the picture.37 Its demise makes sense since church leaders were being sent out to far-flung locations to colonize the Great Basin, making it unfeasible to meet regularly, and it roughly corresponded to the granting of territorial status in September 1850. When the council did eventually reconvene in 1867, it was for a reunion to “meet and renew our acquaintance with each other,” not because there was “any particular business” to address.38 This does not reflect a complete abandonment of the aspiration to create a theocratic kingdom. Discourses and private correspondence were laced with references to the council and to the church’s chosen status as God’s people. Neither did Young relinquish the hope for a semi-autonomous state. When the U.S. sent federal troops to Utah Territory in 1857, the governor and church president considered making a clean break by leading the membership to Mexico.39 Through all this, he seems to have viewed the council as a relic of the past rather than as an essential political body whose decisions were binding on him.

John Taylor, Young’s successor, revitalized the council in 1880 and had himself anointed king in early 1885.40 He restored the emphasis that Smith had instigated, stemming from Taylor’s apocalyptic zeal and direct opposition to the political climate in the territory. The idea of home rule appealed to him as one of the targets of the stepped-up federal anti-­polygamy campaign that had come about through congressional passage of the Edmunds Law (1882) and Edmunds-Tucker Law (1887) outlawing polygamy and cohabitation with more than one sexual partner.41

The federal campaign, paired with the accompanying perception of an attack on the Mormon empire, produced an intense revival of millennial fervor. Besieged by temporal forces, Mormons looked to God for a miracle. In the “wilderness revelation” of apostle Wilford Woodruff, also a target of anti-polygamy legislation, God promised him that “your Enemies shall not prevail over you.”42 In June 1882, Taylor prophesied—and this was reported in a Council of Fifty meeting—that the Lord would “fight our battles for us.” Taylor received assurance that the kingdom held “power from on high,” that it would introduce into the world “righteousness and justice, and judgment, and truth, and virtue, and holiness.”43 Taylor led the church forward without compromise, steadfastly believing that the righteousness of their cause would be demonstrated through divine intervention.

The question of plural marriage was the most visible reflection of the tension that existed within nineteenth-century Mormonism. However, Mormon leaders deliberated, sometimes agonizingly, over other issues involving how they should situate the church within the broader culture. Sometimes the council contemplated whether to continue the existing system of weights and measures or to create their own. Young recognized that there were benefits to cooperating with easterners, that the “most easy, simple, plain system” already in existence would constitute the best policy for the territory. Others resisted “adopting the system o[f] any nation” so that Utah would emphasize its independent mood.44 Sometimes the U.S. Constitution was given faint praise as a good document, while the theocratic Council of Fifty was considered better than anything that could be contrived in Washington, council members maintaining that God “considered our system infinitely superior to theirs.”45 It may be argued that the tension between the urge to remain unique and the pressure to conform politically and socially has never been fully resolved. Certainly, though, the issue is less theocratic in nature today than it once was. Whether to incorporate American standards for weights and measures and related issues were settled by the early twentieth century. Church members now participate, more or less, in the broader American political system.

All told, the Council of Fifty was in operation for about forty years, with intermittent periods of inactivity, meaning that during this time Mormons held an underlying assumption that it was better to be ruled by a secret religious government appointed by the prophet than by an independently elected secular body. The Council of Fifty would be the legislative body that would bring the world into the End Days. When the council expired in the mid-1880s, the church had settlements throughout the inland West, but the United States did not share its vision of a Mormon homeland. At the time of statehood in 1896, the state of Utah no longer remotely resembled the political entity Young had envisioned; his theocracy was now in its death throes. The Council of Fifty disbanded and became largely forgotten, indicating how much Mormonism was changing.

This volume introduces us to Mormon political aspirations prior to Americanization. The record of the Council of Fifty provides a window into the spirit and vitality of nineteenth-century Mormonism in both theocratic and political arenas. In the spirit of the times, the church was more revolutionary and idealistic than it is now. Smith and his successors had expansive ideas about perhaps breaking free of the United States in Oregon or Texas, but their aspirations would ultimately butt against the realities of survival within the realm of U.S. geopolitical influence. Popular myth has the council as a shadowy power behind the throne, which was not the case, mostly because whatever aspirations they had, they soon found they needed to temper them in order to plant both feet on terra firma.

1. Conference Minutes, Apr. 7, 1844, qtd. in Ronald K. Esplin, “‘A Place Prepared’: Joseph, Brigham, and the Quest for Promised Refuge in the West,” Journal of Mormon History 9 (1982): 86.

2. William Clayton journal, 153. See also the Council of Fifty minutes for April 10, 1880, herein, referring to the same revelation. The editors of the Joseph Smith Papers urge caution in assuming there was such a revelation, given the fact that the content seems to not have survived. Richard E. Turley Jr., Matthew J. Grow, and Ronald K. Esplin, “The Council of Fifty and Its Records: A First Glimpse,” presentation at the 2014 Mormon History Association conference, San Antonio, June 6, 2014. The meaning of the term “to bear off,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary, 1993, is “to carry off, win as a prize” (now considered “obsolete usage”). The meaning of “Ahman Christ” is derived from D&C 116.

3. William Clayton journal, 159 (Mar. 10, 1845).

4. Klaus J. Hansen, Mormonism and the American Experience (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 114. See also Grant Underwood, The Millenarian World of Early Mormonism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 6, 146n2. Appreciation to Klaus Hansen for pointing out this last reference.

5. As Joseph wrote in the LDS Times and Seasons, the Mosaic “government was a theocracy … so will it be when the purposes of God shall be accomplished: when ‘the Lord shall be King over the whole earth,’ and ‘Jerusalem His throne,’” (July 15, 1842, 857).

6. Benjamin F. Johnson autobiography, 87 (Mar. 14, 1844).

7. Historian’s Office history, Mar. 10, 1844; Correspondence of Bishop George Miller with the Northern Islander (N.p.: By the author, 1855), rpt. as Correspondence of Bishop George Miller (N.p.: Wingfield Watson’s grandchildren, 1977), entry dated Apr. 25, 1844. See, e.g., Michael Scott Van Wagenen, The Texas Republic and the Mormon Kingdom of God (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2002).

8 Joel H. Silbey, Storm over Texas: The Annexation Controversy and the Road to Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 7.

9. Lyman Wight, An Address, entry dated May 3, 1844.

10. Meaning prophet, priest, and king, from the William Clayton journal, 129. Following the pattern of David in the Hebrew Bible, there are some who claim a literal crowning ceremony based on an account of non-LDS George T. M. Davis in 1844, An Authentic Account of the Massacre of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet (St. Louis: Chambers and Knapp, 1844). A portion of the Davis account was reprinted in John E. Hallwas and Roger D. Launius, eds., Cultures in Conflict: A Documentary History of the Mormon War in Illinois (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1995), 103–07. Davis stated that Joseph “was able to secure his coronation as King” and that the proof of it is the degree to which people obeyed his orders, “no matter what the requisition made of them,” that “his actions and conduct” belie his coronation (Hallwas and Launius, 106). Davis relied on William Law, who had learned of the coronation from William Marks. Law was also the source for the following 1844 newspaper report: “Joe … was crowned ‘King of Israel’ in 1844 by the Council of Fifty [and] denominated the ‘Ancient of Days.’ The fifty were all sworn to secrecy. I had the fact from one who assisted at the coronation—divulged since Joe’s death” (Upper Mississippian and Rock Island Republican, Nov. 2, 1844).

11. Joseph Smith, Jr., “The Globe,” Times and Seasons, Apr. 15, 1844, 510; emphasis in original. Samuel Brown identifies W. W. Phelps as the ghostwriter of this article (Brown, “The Translator and Ghostwriter: Joseph Smith and W. W. Phelps,” Journal of Mormon History 34, no. 1 [Winter 2008]: 50).

12. Erastus Snow autobiography, Church History Library.

13. Devery S. Anderson and Gary James Bergera, eds., Joseph Smith’s Quorum of the Anointed, 1842–1845 (Salt Lake City: Signature Books/Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2005), xxxix–xliii, 72n33; D. Michael Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power (Salt Lake City: Signature Books/Smith Research Associates, 1994), 136; D. Michael Quinn, “The Council of Fifty and Its Members, 1844 to 1945,” BYU Studies 20 (Winter 1980): 178–79. Of the original fifty-four members, thirty-one received their temple endowment before Smith’s death, and eighteen received their second anointing. Unlike the Anointed Quorum, women were not members of the council.

14. See Joseph F. Smith journal, Oct. 12, 1880; Franklin D. Richards journal, Apr. 8, 1881. For information on temple rituals, see David John Buerger, “The Development of the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 20 (Winter 1987): 33–76; Lisle G Brown, “‘What Is That?’: The Keys of the Priesthood in the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony,” The Research Report 1 (Jan./Feb. 1990): 1–22; Brown, “Temple Ordinances as Administered in Nauvoo Illinois, 1840–1846,” Research Report 1 (Mar./Apr. 1990): 1–21.

15. Joseph arranged the members of the original council according to seniority, more or less by age.

16. Entry for Mar. 26, 1844. John E. Page had also been sent to present the memorial but returned “to Pittsburgh on account of his wife’s ill health” (entry for May 13).

17. For his presidential platform, see Joseph Smith, Views on the Powers and Policy of the Government of the United States (1844; Salt Lake City: Joseph Hyrum Parry & Co., 1886), 15–22.

18. Hallwas and Launius, eds., Cultures in Conflict, 103–07.

19. William Clatyon journal, 135–37, 157–64. It is an assumption, but not proven absent the originals, that the notebooks contain unedited replications of the rough drafts.

20. Qtd. in Grant Underwood, “Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: The Mormons,” in Millennial Persecution and Violence: Historical Cases, ed. Catherine Wessinger (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000), 47.

21. Irene Hascall Pomeroy to Ashbel G. Hascall, July 6, 1845, typescript in Quinn Papers.

22. Hosea Stout diary, Oct. 5, 1845; Times and Seasons, Nov. 1, 1845, 1,010–11, qtd. in Esplin, “Place Prepared,” 104.

23. Orson Pratt, “The Kingdom of God,” in The Essential Orson Pratt (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 48.

24. Brigham Young to James K. Polk, Aug. 9, 1846, Brigham Young Office Files, Church History Library; qtd. in Ronald W. Walker, “The Affair of the ‘Runaway’: Utah’s First Encounter with the Federal Officers,” Journal of Mormon History 39, no. 4 (Fall 2013): 2.

25. Cf. Richard E. Bennett, We’ll Find the Place: The Mormon Exodus, 1846–1848 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1997), 71–72, 355n7, appreciation again to Klaus Hansen.

26. Qtd. in Quinn, Origins of Power, 196.

27. Journal History, Jan. 14, 1850; qtd. in Victor Sorensen, “The Wasters and Destroyers: Community-sponsored Predator Control in Early Utah Territory,” Utah Historical Quarterly 62, no. 1 (Winter 1994): 26–41.

28. Historian’s Office history, Dec. 16, 1848; Mar. 4, 1849.

29. Selected Minutes, Aug. 25, 1851.

30. D. Michael Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power (Salt Lake City: Signature Books/Smith Research Associates, 1997), 730; Journal of Discourses, 5:219.

31. For more on how the council operated, see Andrew F. Ehat, “‘It Seemed Like Heaven Began on Earth’: Joseph Smith and the Constitution of the Kingdom of God,” BYU Studies 20, no. 3 (Spring 1980): 260–61; Ehat, “Joseph Smith’s Introduction of Temple Ordinances and the 1844 Succession Question” (M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1982), 157–58.

32. A Report to Presidents Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, and the Authorities of the Church in Zion, Apr. 5, 1849, in CR 1234, Brigham Young Office Files.

33. Historian’s Office history, Jan. 6, 1849.

34. John D. Lee diary, Feb. 9, 1849.

35. Lyman Wight to Brigham Young, Mar. 2, 1851, CR 1234 1, Brigham Young Office Files, Church History Library.

36. Draft letter from Orson Hyde, Mar. 27, 1849, 176. See also Matthew S. Moore, “‘Joseph’s Measures’: The Continuation of Esoterica by Schismatic Members of the Council of Fifty,” Journal of Mormon History 25 (Fall 1999): 70–100, for a discussion of Haws, Woodworth, and others who were excommunicated or disfellowshipped.

37. James P. Clark, in “The Kingdom of God, the Council of Fifty, and the State of Deseret,” Utah Historical Quarterly 26, no. 2 (Apr. 1958): 143, incorrectly postulated that the council operated as “the policy making body for the civil government of Utah from 1848 to 1870, if not later.”

38. Selected Minutes, Jan. 23, 1867.

39. The Utah War is thoroughly presented in William P. MacKinnon, At Sword’s Point: A Documentary History of the Utah War to 1858, Part 1 (Norman: Arthur H. Clark, 2008); Richard D. Poll, et al., eds., Utah’s History (Provo: BYU Press, 1978), 155–56.

40. Selected Minutes of the Council of Fifty, Feb. 4, 1885.

41. A few council members recognized that the Edmunds Act had “not [been] made against polygamy but against the Church and Kingdom of God” (Selected Minutes, Apr. 4, 1882). Frederick T. Dubois acknowledged that he and others “were not nearly so much opposed to polygamy as we were to the political domination of the Church,” that they “made use of polygamy … as our great weapon of offense and to gain recruits to our standard” (“Autobiography of Frederick T. Dubois,” qtd. in Klaus Hansen, Quest for Empire: The Political Kingdom of God and the Council of Fifty in Mormon History [Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1970], 170).

42. Wilford Woodruff diary, Dec. 28, 1880; also in Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for World’s End: The Diaries of Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1993), 140–46.

43. John Taylor revelation, June 27, 1882.

44. John D. Lee diary, Feb. 17, 1849.

45. Selected Minutes, Apr. 5, 1882.

Members of the Council of Fifty

Adams, George J. Born 1811 in Oxford, N.J., raised in Boston. Prominent Mason and judge in Illinois. Inducted into council in spring 1844, dropped 1845-46. Died May 11, 1880, in Philadelphia.

Babbitt, Almon W. Born Oct. 1, 1813, in Berkshire County, Mass. Inducted into council in spring 1844. Official delegate of the “Provisional State of Deseret.” Killed in 1856 at Ash Hollow, Nebraska Territory.

Badlam, Alexander. Born Nov. 28, 1809, possibly in Dorchester, Mass. Inducted into council in spring 1844. Dropped 1845–46, reinducted in 1851, then dropped again. Helped settle Sacramento. Died Nov. 4, 1894, in San Francisco.

Benson, Ezra T. Born Feb. 22, 1811, in Mendon, Mass. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in July 1846. Inducted into council Dec. 25, 1846, in Winter Quarters, Neb. Died Sept. 3, 1869, in Ogden.

Bent, Samuel. Born July 19, 1778, in Barre, Mass. Inducted into council on Mar. 19, 1844, in Nauvoo. Died Aug. 16, 1846, in Mt. Pisgah, Iowa.

Bernhisel, John M. Born June 23, 1799, in Loysville, Perry County, Penn. Member of Quorum of Anointed from 1843. Attended provisional meeting of council on Mar. 10, 1844, and was inducted the next day. Became Utah territorial delegate to U.S. Congress and church lobbyist. Died Sept. 28, 1881, in Salt Lake City.

Bonney, Edward. Born in 1807 in Essex County, N.Y. Inducted into council in spring 1844. Not a member of LDS church. Dropped from council in 1845–46. Became bounty hunter. Died Feb. 4, 1864, in Chicago.

Brown, Uriah. Born 1784 in Conn. Inducted into council on Mar. 19, 1844, in Nauvoo. Not a member of LDS church. Dropped from council in 1845–46, considered for readmission in 1851 but no action taken. Death date unknown.

Budge, William. Born May 1, 1828, in Lanark, Scotland. Became president of Bear Lake stake in Idaho. Inducted into council on June 24, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Died Mar. 1, 1919, in Logan.

Bullock, Thomas. Born Dec. 23, 1816, in Leek, Engl. Private secretary to Joseph Smith. Inducted into council on Dec. 25, 1846, in Winter Quarters, Neb., served as clerk. Became Assistant Church Historian. Died Feb. 10, 1885, in Coalville, Utah.

Burton, Robert T. Born Oct. 25, 1821, in Amherstburg, ON. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Called to Presiding Bishopric in 1874. Died Nov. 11, 1907, in Salt Lake City.

Cahoon, Reynolds. Born Apr. 30, 1790, in Cambridge, N.Y. Member of Presiding Bishopric in Ohio, member of Quorum of Anointed in Illinois. Attended provisional council meeting Mar. 10, 1844, and inducted the next day. Died Apr. 29, 1861, in Salt Lake City.

Caine, John T. Born Jan. 8, 1829, in Kirk Patrick, Isle of Man. Inducted into council on Apr. 8, 1881, in Salt Lake City, a year before becoming territorial delegate to U.S. Congress. Died Sept. 20, 1911, in Utah.

Cannon, Abraham H. Born Mar. 12, 1859, in Salt Lake City. Inducted into council on Oct. 9, 1884, in Salt Lake City. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Oct. 1889. Died July 19, 1896, in Salt Lake City.

Cannon, Angus M. Born May 17, 1834, in Liverpool, Engl. President of Salt Lake stake from 1876. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880. Died June 17, 1915, in Salt Lake City.

Cannon, George Q. Born Jan. 11, 1827, in Liverpool, Engl. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Aug. 1860. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City, served as recorder. Called to First Presidency in 1873. Died Apr. 12, 1901, in Monterey, Calif.

Cannon, John Q. Born Apr. 19, 1857, in Salt Lake City. Inducted into council on Oct. 9, 1884, in Salt Lake City. Became editor of Deseret News, served in Spanish–American War, became member of Presiding Bishopric. Died Jan. 14, 1931, in Salt Lake City.

Carrington, Albert. Born Jan. 8, 1813, in Royalton, Vt. Inducted into council in Apr. 1845 in Nauvoo. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in July 1870. Died Sept. 19, 1889, in Salt Lake City.

Clawson, Hiram B. Born Nov. 27, 1826, in Utica, N.Y. Became business manager for Brigham Young, superintendent of ZCMI cooperative. Inducted into council on June 27, 1882, in Salt Lake City; died there on Mar. 29, 1912.

Clayton, William. Born July 17, 1814, in Charnock Moss, Engl. Secretary to Joseph Smith and church hymnist. Attended provisional council meeting on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day, appointed clerk. Died Dec. 4, 1879, in Salt Lake City.

Clinton, Jeter. Born Feb. 17, 1813, in Whitewater, Ind. Inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Became justice of the peace, city alderman. Died May 10, 1892, in Salt Lake City.

Cluff, William W. Born Mar. 8, 1832, in Willoughby, Ohio. Stake president and territorial legislator for Summit County (Park City). Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880, in Salt Lake City, died there Aug. 21, 1915.

Coolidge, Joseph W. Born May 31, 1814, in Bangor, Maine. Inducted into council on Apr. 18, 1844, in Nauvoo, became executor of Joseph Smith’s estate. Dropped from council in 1848–50. Died Jan. 15, 1871, in Coonville, Iowa.

Cutler, Alpheus. Born Feb. 29, 1784, in Upper Lisle, N.Y. Member of Nauvoo high council and Quorum of Anointed. Attended provisional council meeting on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day, dropped between 1848–50. Died Aug. 10, 1864, in Shenandoah, Iowa.

Dana, Lewis. Born 1805 into Oneida Indian tribe. Served as liaison between Mormons and Indians. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo, dropped from council in 1848–50. Died in 1885.

Daniels, Cyrus. Born Sept. 12, 1803, in Nelson, N.Y. One of first Mormon families to settle in Independence, Mo. Later sent to Wisconsin in search of timber lands. Inducted into council on Mar. 11, 1845, in Nauvoo. Died Dec. 1, 1846, in Winter Quarters, Neb.

Dunham, Jonathan. Born Jan. 14, 1800, in Paris, N.Y. Nauvoo police captain, wharf master, officer in Nauvoo Legion. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845. Died July 28, 1845, in Newton County, Mo.

Eaton, Marenus G. Born Mar. 15, 1808. Inducted into council in Mar.–Apr. 1844. Not LDS. Dropped from council in 1845–46. Apparently engaged with Edward Bonney in counterfeiting. Died in 1861, place unknown.

Eldredge, Horace S. Born Feb. 6, 1816, in Brutus, N.Y. Inducted into council on Dec. 9, 1848, in Salt Lake City. Became church militia leader, territorial marshal, one of seven presidents of Seventy. Died Sept. 6, 1888, in Salt Lake City.

Emmett, James. Born Feb. 22, 1803, in Boone County, Ky. Became member of Iowa high council and Nauvoo police force. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 13, 1844. Dropped from council in 1845–46. Died Dec. 22, 1852, in San Bernardino, Calif.

Farnham, John W. Born Dec. 15, 1794, in Andover, Mass. Inducted into council in Apr. 1845, and received temple endowment eight months later on Christmas Day. Died in Illinois.

Farr, Lorin. Born July 27, 1820, in Waterford, Vt. Became mayor and stake president of Ogden in 1851. Inducted into council on Oct. 12, 1880, in Salt Lake City. Died Jan. 12, 1909, in Ogden.

Fielding, Amos. Born July 16, 1792, in Bolton, Engl. Served as church immigration agent in Liverpool. Attended provisional council meeting on Mar. 10, 1844, and was inducted the next day. Died Aug. 5, 1875, in Salt Lake City.

Fielding, Joseph. Born Mar. 26, 1797, in Honeydon, Engl. Presided over British Mission. Became member of Quorum of Anointed in Dec. 1843 and of Council of Fifty in Mar.–Apr. 1844. Died Dec. 19, 1863, in Salt Lake City.

Foster, Lucien R. Born 1806. Oversaw LDS church in New York City. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo, dropped in 1846–47. Became professional photographer (daguerreotypes). Died Mar. 19, 1876, in Salt Lake City.

Fullmer, David. Born July 7, 1803, in Chillisquaque, Pa. Member of Nauvoo high council. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo. Became member of Utah territorial legislature. Died Oct. 21, 1879, in Salt Lake City.

Fullmer, John S. Born July 21, 1807, in Huntington, Pa. Inducted into council in Apr. 1845 in Nauvoo. Immigrated to Utah in 1848 after serving as church agent in Illinois. Died Oct. 8, 1883, in Springville, Utah.

Gates, Jacob. Born Mar. 8, 1811, in Saint Johnsbury, Vt. One of seven presidents of Seventy and member of Utah legislature. Inducted into council on Oct. 10, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Died Apr. 14, 1892, in Provo.

Gibbs, George F. Born Nov. 23, 1846, in Haverfordwest, Wales. Secretary to First Presidency, son-in-law of future president Lorenzo Snow. Inducted into council on June 24, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Died Mar. 10, 1924, in same city.

Grant, George D. Born Sept. 10, 1812, in Windsor, N.Y. Became Danite in Missouri, inducted into council in Illinois on Sept. 9, 1845. Served as Brigham Young bodyguard and militia officer in Indian wars. Died Sept. 20, 1876, in Woods Cross, Utah.

Grant, Heber J. Born Nov. 22, 1856, in Salt Lake City. Inducted into council on June 26, 1882. Ordained as LDS apostle four months later, became president of church in 1918. Died May 14, 1945, in Salt Lake City.

Grant, Jedediah M. Born Feb. 21, 1816, in Windsor, N.Y. Inducted into council on May 6, 1844, in Nauvoo. Member of First Presidency from 1854. Died Dec. 1, 1856, in Salt Lake City.

Greene, John P. Born Sept. 3, 1793, in Herkimer, N.Y. Member of Ohio high council. Nauvoo city marshal. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 26, 1844. Died Sept. 10, 1844, in Nauvoo.

Hardy, Leonard W. Born Dec. 31, 1805, in Bradford, Mass. Member of Presiding Bishopric from 1856. Inducted into council on June 27, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Died there two years later on July 31, 1884.

Hatch, Abram. Born Jan. 3, 1830, in Lincoln, Vt. Member of Utah territorial legislature and stake president in Wasatch County (Heber). Inducted into council on June 29, 1883, in Salt Lake City. Died Dec. 2, 1911, in Heber.

Haws, Peter. Born Feb. 17, 1795, in Yonge, ON. High councilman (alternate) and Masonic lodge member in Nauvoo. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 11, 1844, and dropped in 1846–47. Died in 1862 in California.

Heywood, Joseph L. Born Aug. 1, 1815, in Grafton, Mass. Inducted into council on Dec. 6, 1848, in Salt Lake City. Died Oct. 16, 1910, in Panguitch, Utah.

Hollister, David S. Born in 1808 in Middleburg, N.Y. Steamboat captain and member of Nauvoo Masonic lodge. Inducted into council on Apr. 18, 1844, possibly dropped in 1847. Died in 1858.

Hooper, William H. Born Dec. 25, 1813, in Cambridge, Md. Utah territorial secretary and delegate to Congress. Inducted into council on Oct. 5, 1867, in Salt Lake City, where he died Dec. 30, 1882.

Hunter, Edward. Born June 22, 1793, in Newtown, Pa. Presiding Bishop from 1851. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867. Died Oct. 16, 1883, in Salt Lake City.

Hyde, Orson. Born Jan. 8, 1805, in Oxford, Conn. Ordained to apostleship on Feb. 15, 1835. Inducted into council on Mar. 13, 1844, in Nauvoo. Died Nov. 28, 1878, in Spring City, Utah.

James, Samuel. Born 1814 in Pa. Member of Ohio high council. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 19, 1844, in Nauvoo, and dropped from council in 1845–46. Died 1876 in Steubenville, Ohio.

Jennings, William. Born Sept. 13, 1823. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880. Founded Eagle Emporium and built Devereaux Mansion in Salt Lake City; became mayor of city in 1882. Died there on Jan. 15, 1886.

Johnson, Benjamin F. Born July 28, 1818, in Pomfret, N.Y. Served as Joseph Smith’s business manager. Inducted into council in Mar.–Apr. 1844 in Illinois. Elected to Utah territorial legislature, helped settle Colonia Díaz, Chih. Died Nov. 18, 1905, in Mesa, Ariz.

Kimball, Charles S. Born Jan. 2, 1843, in Nauvoo to Heber and Vilate Kimball. Fought in Utah’s Black Hawk War in 1866. Inducted into council the next year on Jan. 23. Died in Salt Lake City on Dec. 2, 1925.

Kimball, David P. Born Aug. 23, 1839, in Nauvoo to Heber and Vilate Kimball. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City. President of Bear Lake stake from 1869. Died Nov. 22, 1883, in Saint David, Ariz.

Kimball, Heber C. Born June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Vt. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1835, became member of Quorum of Anointed in 1842. Attended provisional Council of Fifty meeting, Mar. 10, 1844, and inducted the next day. Member of First Presidency from 1847. Died June 22, 1868, in Salt Lake City.

Kimball, Heber P. Born Jan. 1, 1835, in Kirtland to Heber and Vilate Kimball. Fought in Black Hawk War in Utah in 1866, inducted into council the next year on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City, where he died Feb. 8, 1885.

Layton, Christopher. Born Mar. 8, 1822, in Thorncote Green, Engl. Founded Utah cities of Kaysville and Layton. Inducted into council on June 29, 1883, in Salt Lake City. Became Thatcher, Ariz., stake president in 1883. Died Aug. 7, 1898, in Kaysville.

Lee, John D. Born Sept. 6, 1812, in Kaskaskia, lll. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo, served as clerk for Mar.–Aug. 1846 meetings. Executed for role in Mountain Meadows Massacre on Mar. 23, 1877, near Cedar City, Utah.

Lewis, Philip B. Born Jan. 16, 1804, in Marblehead, Mass. Inducted into council in Mar.–Apr. 1844 in Nauvoo. President of Sandwich Islands Mission, 1851. Died Nov. 13, 1879, in Kanab, Utah, where he was stake patriarch.

Little, Feramorz. Born June 14, 1820, in Aurelius, N.Y. Mayor of Salt Lake City from 1882. Inducted into council on Apr. 21, 1880. Died in Salt Lake City on Aug. 14, 1886.

Lott, Cornelius P. Born Sept. 22, 1798, in New York City. Bodyguard to Joseph Smith, manager of Smith farm. Initiated into Quorum of Anointed in Dec. 1843. Inducted into council in Mar.–Apr. 1844. Died July 6, 1850, in Salt Lake City.

Lyman, Amasa M. Born Mar. 30, 1813, in Lyman, N.H. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Aug. 1842, called to First Presidency in 1843. Inducted into Council of Fifty in Mar.–Apr. 1844 in Nauvoo, then presumably dropped in 1867. Died Feb. 4, 1877, in Fillmore, Utah.

Lyman, Francis M. Born Jan. 12, 1840, in Good Hope, Ill. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880, in Salt Lake City, then ordained to Quorum of Twelve six months later in Oct. 1880. Died Nov. 18, 1916, in San Bernardino, Calif.

Marks, William. Born Nov. 15, 1792, in Rutland, Vt. President of Kirtland stake, 1838, President of Nauvoo stake from 1839. Inducted into Quorum of Anointed, 1842. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 19, 1844, then dropped in 1845–46. Left Nauvoo early in 1845. Died May 22, 1872, in Plano, Ill.

Miller, George. Born Nov. 25, 1794, near Standardville, Vt. Led expedition to Wisconsin, became a bishop, became member of Quorum of Anointed, 1842. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day. Dropped from council in 1845–46. Died Aug. 27, 1856, in Meringo, Ill.

Morley, Isaac. Born Mar. 11, 1786, in Montague, Mass. Presiding Bishopric, 1831. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo. Oversaw colonization of Sanpete Valley in Utah, 1849; became territorial legislator, 1851. Died July 21, 1864, in Fairview, Utah.

Murdock, John R. Born Sept. 13, 1826, in Orange, Ohio. His mother died in childbirth five years later, and Emma Smith became the wet nurse and foster mother to her newborn twins. Mission to Australia, 1851. Inducted into council on June 28, 1883, in Salt Lake City. Died Nov. 12, 1913, in Fillmore, Utah.

Nuttall, L. John. Born July 6, 1834, in Liverpool, Engl. Secretary of Utah territorial legislature.  Secretary to LDS President John Taylor from 1879 and to LDS President Wilford Woodruff from 1889. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880. Died Feb. 23, 1905, in Salt Lake City.

Pack, John. Born May 20, 1809, in Saint John, NB. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo. Helped open mission to France, helped found University of Deseret (U. of Utah). Died Apr. 4, 1885, in Salt Lake City.

Page, John E. Born Feb. 25, 1799, in Trenton, N.Y. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Dec. 1838. Sent to preside over church in Pittsburgh, 1842. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo, and dropped in 1846–47. Died Oct. 14, 1867, in Sycamore, Ill.

Parker, John D. Born Nov. 22, 1799, in Saratoga, N.Y. Inducted into council on Mar. 19, 1844, in Nauvoo. Died Feb. 27, 1891, in Kanarraville, Utah.

Penrose, Charles W. Born Feb. 4, 1832, in London, Engl. Inducted into council on June 26, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in July 1904. Served in First Presidency from 1911. Died May 16, 1925, in Salt Lake City.

Peterson, Canute. Born May 13, 1824, in Bergen, Norway. Helped found town of Lehi, Utah; became bishop of Ephraim, Utah, in 1867. Inducted into council on June 27, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Died Oct. 14, 1903, in Ephraim.

Phelps, John. Born Sept. 5, 1800, in Canada. Attended provisional meeting of council on Mar. 10, 1844, without being inducted. Settled in Ogden, 1850, and west coast, 1862. Returned to Utah and settled in Kanab; killed by strychnine poisoning on Apr. 1, 1883.

Phelps, William W. Born Feb. 17, 1792, in Hanover, N.J. Edited church newspaper in Kirtland. Became scribe for Joseph Smith from 1841 and member of Quorum of Anointed, 1843. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day. Became Speaker of the Utah legislature, 1851. Died Mar. 1872 in Salt Lake City.

Pratt, Orson. Born Sept. 19, 1811, in Hartford, N.Y. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Apr. 1835, became member of Quorum of Anointed in 1843. Attended provisional meeting of the Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, and was inducted the next day. Presided over church in UK, edited Millennial Star from 1848. Became Speaker of Utah territorial legislature from 1876. Died Oct. 3, 1881, in Salt Lake City.

Pratt, Parley P. Born Apr. 12, 1807, in Burlington, N.Y. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1835. Edited Millennial Star in Manchester, Engl., beginning 1840. Initiated into Quorum of Anointed, 1843. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day. Opened mission in Chile, 1851. Killed May 13, 1857, in Van Buren, Ark.

Pratt, Parley P., Jr. Born Mar. 25, 1837, in Kirtland. Served three proselyting missions from 1861. Inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867, in Salt Lake City and died there Aug. 26, 1897.

Preston, William B. Born Nov. 24, 1830, in Halifax, Va. Vice president of Utah and Northern Railway from 1871. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880, in Salt Lake City. Named Presiding Bishop, 1884. Died in Salt Lake City Aug. 2, 1908.

Reynolds, George. Born Jan. 1, 1842, in Marylebone, Engl. Secretary to First Presidency from 1866, mission to England in 1871. Inducted into council on Apr. 8, 1881, in Salt Lake City, where he died Aug. 9, 1909.

Rich, Charles C. Born Aug. 21, 1809, in Boone County, Ky. Nauvoo high councilman from 1839, inducted into Council of Fifty in Mar.–Apr. 1844, ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1849. Co-founded San Bernardino, Calif., in 1851. Died Nov. 17, 1883, in Paris, Idaho.

Rich, Joseph C. Born Jan. 16, 1841, in Nauvoo to Charles and Sarah Rich. Helped settle Idaho’s Bear River area beginning 1863; inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Served in Idaho territorial legislature. Died Oct. 17, 1908, in Centerville, Utah.

Richards, Franklin D. Born Apr. 2, 1821, in Richmond, Mass. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1849. Inducted into council on Mar. 14, 1849, in Salt Lake City. Died Dec. 9, 1899, in Ogden.

Richards, Franklin S. Born June 20, 1849 in Salt Lake City. Employed as church legal counsel from 1880s to early twentieth century. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880, in Salt Lake City and died there Sept. 4, 1934.

Richards, Heber J. Born Oct. 11, 1840, in Lancashire, Engl., to Willard and Jennetta Richards. Studied medicine in New York, became one of first Utah surgeons. Inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Died May 12, 1919, in Provo.

Richards, Levi. Born Apr. 14, 1799, in Hopkinton, Mass. Brother of Willard Richards, personal physician to Joseph Smith, member of Quorum of Anointed. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 11, 1844, in Nauvoo. Died June 18, 1876, in Salt Lake City.

Richards, Phinehas. Born Nov. 15, 1788, in Hopkinton, Mass. Became Middlesex County coroner before converting to Mormonism. Served on high council in four states: Ohio, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah. Invited to join the Council of Fifty on Dec. 6, 1848, in Salt Lake City, where he died Nov. 25, 1874.

Richards, Willard. Born June 24, 1804, in Hopkinson, Mass. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Apr. 1840, and joined Quorum of Anointed in 1842. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, and was inducted the next day, served as historian/recorder. Member of First Presidency from 1847. Died Mar. 11, 1854, in Salt Lake City.

Rigdon, Sidney. Born Feb. 19, 1793, in Allegheny, Penn. Baptist/Disciples of Christ minister prior to conversion. Experienced vision with Joseph Smith, 1832. Called to First Presidency, 1833. Named Nauvoo postmaster, 1841. Added to council on Mar. 19, 1844, and dropped from council in 1845–46. Died June 14, 1876, in Friendship, N.Y.

Rockwell, Orrin Porter. Born Jan. 8, 1814, in Belchertown, Mass. Baptized in 1830. Bodyguard to Joseph Smith; arrested in 1843 for assassination attempt on Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs, but acquitted. Inducted into council on Mar. 19, 1844. Became Brigham Young’s bodyguard, 1846; named deputy marshal of Utah three years later. Died June 9, 1878, in Salt Lake City.

Rockwood, Albert P. Born June 9, 1805, in Holliston, Mass. Hired as one of Joseph Smith’s bodyguards, 1843, called as president of Seventy two years later, inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845. Warden of state penitentiary from 1862. Died Nov. 25, 1879, in Salt Lake City.

Roundy, Shadrach. Born Jan. 1, 1789, in Rockingham, Vt. Bodyguard to Joseph Smith and Nauvoo policeman from 1843. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo. One of pioneers of 1847, member of first high council in Salt Lake City, member of territorial legislature. Died in Salt Lake City on July 9, 1874.

Sharp, John. Born Nov. 9, 1820, in Clackmannan, Scotland. Appointed by Brigham Young to be LDS liaison with Union Pacific Railroad, became board member. Inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Chair of territorial People’s Party. Died Dec. 23, 1891, in Salt Lake City.

Shumway, Charles. Born Aug. 1, 1806, in Oxford, Mass. Policeman and bodyguard to Joseph Smith. Inducted into council Apr. 1845 in Nauvoo. Member of pioneer company of 1847. Died May 21, 1898, in Shumway, Ariz., a town named after him.

Shurtliff, Lewis W. Born July 23, 1835, in Sullivan, Ohio. Named president of Weber Stake (Ogden area) in 1883, joined council on Apr. 10 of same year. State legislator from 1896. Died May 2, 1922, in Ogden.

Smith, Elias. Born Sept. 6, 1804, in Royalton, Vt., a cousin of Joseph Smith Jr. Business manager of Times and Seasons, 1844. Inducted into council in the spring of the same year. Salt Lake County judge from 1851, Salt Lake Postmaster from 1854, editor of Deseret News from 1856. Died June 24, 1888, in Salt Lake City.

Smith, George A. Born June 26, 1817, in Potsdam, N.Y. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in April 1839, Quorum of Anointed Dec. 1843. Attended provisional Council of Fifty meeting on Mar. 10, 1844, and inducted the next day. Member of First Presidency from 1868. Died Sept. 1, 1875, in Salt Lake City.

Smith, Hyrum. Born Feb. 9, 1800, in Tunbridge, Vt., five years before brother Joseph Jr. Member of First Presidency from 1837, Quorum of Anointed from 1842. Attended provisional Council of Fifty meeting on March 10, 1844, and inducted the next day. Killed June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Ill.

Smith, John. Born July 16, 1781, in Derryfield, N.H., an uncle to Joseph Smith Jr. Kirtland high councilman, Missouri stake president (Ahman), Iowa stake president (Lee County). Quorum of Anointed, 1843. Inducted into Council of Fifty, Mar. 1844. First stake president in Salt Lake Valley, 1847. Church Patriarch, 1849. Died May 23, 1854, in Salt Lake City.

Smith, John Henry. Born Sept. 18, 1848, in Kanesville, Iowa, to apostle George A. Smith and fourth wife Sarah Ann. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880, in Salt Lake City. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Oct. 1880. First Presidency, 1910. Died Oct. 13, 1911, in Salt Lake City.

Smith, Joseph. Born Dec. 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vt. Founded Mormon church, Apr. 1830, in New York. Organized Council of Fifty on Mar. 11, 1844, after planning meeting on previous day. Served as chair of the council. Acknowledged as “Prophet, Priest, and King” on Apr. 11, 1844. Killed June 27, 1844, in Carthage, Ill.

Smith, Joseph F. Born Nov. 13, 1838, in Far West, Mo., a nephew of Joseph Smith Jr. and son of Hyrum and Mary Fielding Smith. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve, July 1866. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City. First Presidency from 1880, church president from 1901. Died Nov. 19, 1918, in Salt Lake City.

Smith, Silas S. Born Oct. 26, 1830, in Stockholm, N.Y., a cousin of Joseph Smith Jr. Served mission to Hawaii, fought in Utah’s Black Hawk War. Led colonization of southeastern Utah, 1879. Inducted into the council the next year on Apr. 10. Stake president in Colorado from 1883. Died Oct. 11, 1910, in Layton, Utah.

Smith, William. Born Mar. 13, 1811, in Royalton, Vt., a brother to Joseph Smith Jr. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1835. Illinois legislator from 1842. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Apr. 25, 1844, but dropped in 1845–46. Church Patriarch from 1845. Died Nov. 13, 1894, in Osterdock, Iowa.

Smith, William R. Born Aug. 11, 1826, in Yonge Township, ON, no relationship to Joseph Smith Jr. Bishop of Centerville, Utah. Promoter of Mormon Reformation. Territorial legislature beginning in 1855; Davis Stake president from 1877. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880. Scouted Alberta for colonization, 1885. Died Jan. 15, 1894, in Centerville.

Smoot, Abraham O. Born Feb. 17, 1815, in Owenton, Ky. Mayor of Salt Lake City from 1856. Inducted into council on Jan. 25, 1867. Mayor of Provo, president of Utah Stake (Provo) from 1868. Benefactor of BYU; leading banker, manufacturer (Provo Woolen Mills), and store owner. Died Mar. 6, 1895, in Provo.

Snow, Erastus. Born Nov. 9, 1818, in St. Jonesbury, Vt. Served on high council in Iowa from 1839. Inducted into Council of Fifty in Nauvoo on Mar. 11, 1844. Member of pioneer company of 1847. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve, Feb. 1849. Opened first Scandinavian Mission, 1850. Founded St. George, Utah, 1861. Died May 27, 1888, in Salt Lake City.

Snow, Lorenzo. Born Apr. 3, 1814, in Mantua, Ohio. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Feb. 1849. Inducted into Council of Fifty the next month (Mar. 10) in Salt Lake City. Opened Italian mission, 1850; became Utah legislator, 1853; president of Box Elder stake (Brigham City), 1856; missionary to Hawaii, 1864; church president, 1898. Died Oct. 10, 1901, in Salt Lake City.

Snow, Willard. Born Nov. 16, 1811, in Saint Johnsbury, Vt. Inducted into council on Dec. 6, 1848, in Salt Lake City. Early member of Utah territorial legislature. Buried at sea on Aug. 21, 1853, near Kingston upon Hull, Engl., en route home from Scandinavian mission.

Spencer, Daniel, Jr. Born July 20, 1794, in West Stockbridge, Mass. Mayor of Nauvoo from 1843. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845. President of Salt Lake Stake from 1849. Died Dec. 1868 in Salt Lake City.

Spencer, Orson. Born Mar. 14, 1802, in Stockbridge, Mass., a brother of Daniel Jr. Member of the Quorum of Anointed from 1843. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Mar. 19, 1844. Mayor of Nauvoo, 1845. President of British Mission, 1847–49. Chancellor of University of Deseret (U. of Utah) from 1850. Died Oct. 15, 1855, in St. Louis.

Stout, Hosea. Born Sept. 18, 1810, in Danville, Ky. A prominent Danite, 1838; bodyguard to Joseph Smith and chief of police in Nauvoo; chief of police in Winter Quarters. Attended council meetings Jan.–Aug. 1846 but not inducted until Jan. 25, 1867. Named Utah Attorney General in 1851. Served mission to China, 1852. Died Mar. 2, 1889, in Big Cottonwood Canyon.

Taylor, George J. Born Jan. 31, 1833, in Scarborough, ON, the oldest son of future church president John Taylor and wife Lenora. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Salt Lake Stake high council, 1873. Chief clerk of territorial legislature, 1878. Founding member of Sunday school, 1898. Died in Provo on Dec. 15, 1914.

Taylor, John. Born Nov. 1, 1808, in Milnthorpe, Engl. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Dec. 1838. Member of the Quorum of Anointed from 1843. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, and was inducted the next day. Church president, 1880–87. Anointed “King, Priest, and Ruler” by Council of Fifty on Feb. 4, 1885. Died July 25, 1887, in Kaysville, Utah.

Taylor, John W. Born May 15, 1858, in Provo, son of church president John Taylor and fifth wife Sophia Whitaker. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Apr. 1884; inducted into Council of Fifty on Oct. 9, 1884. Helped organize immigration to Alberta, 1888. Opened mission to Denver, 1896. Died Oct. 10, 1916, in Salt Lake City.

Taylor, William W. Born Sept. 11, 1853, in Salt Lake City, a son of church president John Taylor and sixth wife Harriet Whittaker. Called as a president of Seventy on Apr. 7, 1880; inducted into council three days later as assistant clerk. Died Aug. 1, 1884, in Salt Lake City.

Teasdale, George. Born Dec. 8, 1831, in London, Engl. Inducted into council on June 26, 1882, in Salt Lake City. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Oct. 1882. President of Mexican Mission from 1891. Died June 6, 1907, in Salt Lake City.

Thatcher, Moses. Born Feb. 2, 1842, in Springfield, Ill. Organized first chamber of commerce in Utah (Cache Valley Board of Trade), 1872. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve, Apr. 1879. Opened Mexican mission six months later. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Apr. 10, 1880. Died Aug. 21, 1909, in Logan.

Thayer, Ezra. Born Oct. 14, 1791, in Randolph, Vt. Early convert from Palmyra. Became church land agent in Kirtland, 1833; Missouri high councilman (Far West), 1838. Inducted into Council of Fifty in Mar.–Apr. 1844, but was dropped in 1845–46. Died in Cass County, Mich., on Sept. 6, 1862.

Turley, Theodore. Born Apr. 10, 1801, in Birmingham, Engl. Methodist minister, immigrated to Canada in 1825, converted to Mormonism in 1837. Inducted into council on Mar. 1, 1845, in Nauvoo. Helped settle San Bernardino, Calif., 1851; called as high councilman. Died Aug. 22, 1872, in Beaver, Utah.

Van Cott, John. Born Sept. 7, 1814 in Canaan, N.Y. President of Scandinavian Mission from 1852. President of the Seventy from 1862. Inducted into council on Oct. 12, 1880, in Salt Lake City. Died Feb. 18, 1883, in Salt Lake City.

Wasson, Lorenzo D. Born in 1819 in N.Y., a nephew of Emma Smith. Member of Masonic lodge in Nauvoo. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, was inducted the next day, dropped from council in 1845–46. Died July 28, 1857, in Amboy, Ill.

Wells, Daniel H. Born Oct. 27, 1814, in Fenton, N.Y. Inducted into council on Dec. 6, 1848, in Salt Lake City. First Presidency from 1857; Salt Lake mayor, 1866–76; president of European Mission, 1884–87; Manti temple president from 1888. Died Mar. 24, 1891, in Salt Lake City.

Wells, Junius F. Born June 1, 1854, in Salt Lake City. Founding president of Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association, 1875; editor of Contributor magazine from 1879. Inducted into council on Apr. 10, 1880. Died Apr. 15, 1930, in Salt Lake City.

Whitney, Newel K. Born Feb. 5, 1795, in Marlborough, Vt. Elected to Nauvoo City Council (alderman) in 1841. Initiated into Quorum of Anointed in 1842. Attended organizational meeting of Council of Fifty, Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day. Presiding Bishop from 1847. Died Sept. 24, 1850, in Salt Lake City.

Wight, Lyman. Born May 9, 1796, in Fairfield, N.Y. High councilman in Missouri from 1834, Quorum of Twelve from Apr. 1841, Nauvoo City Council from 1842. Sent to Wisconsin, 1843. Inducted into Council of Fifty on Apr. 18, 1844, and sent to Texas. Disfellowshipped from church in 1848. Texas judge (Gillespie County), 1850. Died Mar. 31, 1858, in Dexter, Tex.

Winder, John R. Born Dec. 11, 1821, in Biddenden, Engl. Immigrated to Utah, 1853. Founded Winder Dairies and other ventures. Inducted into council on Apr. 8, 1881, in Salt Lake City. Chair of territorial People’s Party, 1887. Presiding Bishopric from 1887, First Presidency from 1901. Died Mar. 27, 1910, in Salt Lake City.

Woodruff, Wilford. Born Mar. 1, 1807, in Farmington, Conn. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve in Apr. 1839; elected to Nauvoo City Council the same year. Initiated into Quorum of Anointed, 1843; Council of Fifty, Mar. 13, 1844. St. George temple president from 1877, Church Historian from 1881, and president of church from 1889. Died Sept. 2, 1898, in San Francisco.

Woodworth, Lucien. Born Apr. 3, 1799, in Thetford, Vt. Nauvoo architect, baptized in 1843 and initiated into Quorum of Anointed that year, Council of Fifty the next year on Mar. 11. Sent in 1844 to Republic of Texas to negotiate with Sam Houston. Dropped from council in 1846–47. Immigrated to San Bernardino, 1854, and died there in 1867.

Yearsley, David D. Born Mar. 3, 1808, in Thornbury, Penn. Converted to Mormonism in 1841. Inducted into council in Mar.–Apr. 1844, in Nauvoo, and assigned to scout Oregon (did not go). Called as a bishop in Winter Quarters, Neb. Died of pneumonia 300 miles west of Winter Quarters on Platte River, Oct. 12, 1849.

Young, Brigham. Born June 1, 1801, in Whitingham, Vt. Ordained to Quorum of Twelve, Feb. 1835; elected to Nauvoo City Council, 1841; initiated into Quorum of Anointed, 1842. Attended provisional meeting of Council of Fifty on Mar. 10, 1844, inducted the next day. Church president from 1847, Utah territorial governor from 1851. Anointed “King, Priest, and Ruler.” Died Aug. 29, 1877, in Salt Lake City.

Young, Brigham, Jr. Born Dec. 18, 1836, in Kirtland. Salt Lake high council, 1861; Quorum of Twelve, Feb. 1864; president of European Mission, 1866, 1893. Inducted into Council of Fifty, Jan. 23, 1867. Territorial legislature from 1868; First Presidency from 1873; editor of Deseret News, 1877. Died Apr. 11, 1903, in Salt Lake City.

Young, John, Jr. Born May 21, 1791, in Hopkinton, Mass., ten years before his brother Brigham. Methodist preacher; converted to Mormonism, 1835. Inducted into council on Feb. 9, 1849, in Salt Lake City. Died Apr. 27, 1870, in Salt Lake City.

Young, John W. Born Oct. 1, 1844, in Nauvoo, a son of apostle Brigham Young and Mary Ann Angell. Inducted into council on Oct. 5, 1867, in Salt Lake City. First Presidency, 1876–77. Developer of Lake Side Resort in Farmington, three railroad lines, other ventures. Died Feb. 11, 1924, in New York City.

Young, Joseph. Born Apr. 7, 1797, in Hopkinton, Mass., brother to John Jr. and Brigham four years hence. President of the Seventy from 1835. Inducted into the council on Mar. 1, 1845. Died July 16, 1881, in Salt Lake City.

Young, Joseph A. Born Oct. 14, 1834, in Kirtland to Brigham and Mary Ann Young. Involved in Utah lumber and railroad ventures. Inducted into council on Jan. 23, 1867, in Salt Lake City. Stake president in Sevier County (Richfield) from 1872. Died Aug. 5, 1875, in Manti, Utah.

Young, Phineas H. Born Feb. 16, 1799, in Hopkinton, Mass., older brother of Brigham Young. Inducted into council on Apr. 15, 1845, in Nauvoo. Entered Salt Lake Valley with pioneer company, 1847. Died Oct. 10, 1879, in Salt Lake City.

Young, Seymour B. Born Oct. 3, 1837, in Kirtland, nephew to Brigham Young. Graduated from University Medical College in N.Y., 1874. President of the Seventy from 1882. Inducted into council on Oct. 9, 1884, in Salt Lake City. Died there in 1924.