excerpt – A Mormon Rebel

Frederick GardinerINTRODUCTION

Frederick Gardiner’s “Synopsis” is in the form of a narrative, though the material obviously is based on diary entries. Because of the specificity of the synopsis with respect to such facts as dates, places, and times, Gardiner must have maintained some form of daily entries and notes. We can surmise that the synopsis was written in his later years for the reason that, in the opening paragraph, he speaks of his mother in the past tense. His mother, Mary Ann Goodship, died April 10, 1880, in Mendon, Cache County, Utah. His father, John Gardiner, also died in Mendon, Utah, on January 16 of the same year.

These reminiscences are written as a single narration, hut the editor has divided it into ten chapters. Happily, the narration has naturally adapted to these divisions. It begins with Gardiner’s childhood in Chalford Hill, a hamlet about twelve miles from the city of Gloucester, England. As he notes, he was the third son and the fourth child of what became a family of ten. Gardiner’s brothers and sisters were William, born October 18, 1827, died January 31, 1903; James, born August 31, 1828, died September 16, 1905, Teton City, Idaho; Sarah Ellen, stillborn December 9, 1830; Mary Ann, born December 25, 1834, died 1837; Joseph Hyrum, born February 28, 1837, died 1837; Brigham, stillborn January 16, 1839; Henry, born May 15, 1840, died December 22, 1891, Mendon, Utah; Alfred, born September 25, 1842, died June 14, 1914, Mendon, Utah; and Emma, born April 5, 1848, died July 7, 1882, St. Anthony, Idaho.1

Frederick Gardiner relates his first contact with Mormon missionaries and his conversion, along with his family, to the Mormon church. He was baptized May 30, 1845, by James Stephens and confirmed on June 2 by E. H. Webb. In 1849 he migrated to the United States, departing from Liverpool for New Orleans aboard the steamship James Pennel. The narrative gives good descriptions of shipboard life, the city of New Orleans, and the slave markets.

On the next phase of his trip to Utah, Gardiner and his companion, Job Salter, took a steamer up the Mississippi to St. Louis. Rather than proceeding farther to Council Bluffs or Florence, two of the jumping-off places for the final leg to Utah, they returned to New Orleans. It was not until 1851 that Gardiner made the journey to Utah. He provides the reader an interesting chronicle of how a young Mormon convert was able to support himself and survive the pilgrimage to Utah. He worked at a number of jobs ranging from waiter to doctor’s assistant. At Council Bluffs he became part of the wagon train headed by Captain John Brown. His account of crossing the plains and driving a team for Brother Robbins is well written. He relates the story of the shooting of James Monroe by Howard Egan. He captures the toil and danger of the incredible climb of and descent from Big and Little mountains at the entrance to the Great Salt Lake Valley.

The first of his family to migrate to Utah, Gardiner chronicles his arrival in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake and his treatment as a newcomer.

His parents came west in 1856 with the handcart companies. Gardiner tells of the hardships of the Martin and Willie companies and of the help provided by Brigham Young. After a rather peremptory courtship, lasting only two weeks, Gardiner married Sarah Smith, daughter of Thomas and Sarah Grasing (Grassing) Smith. The marriage took place on Christmas day, 1856, only after the couple obtained the approbation of Brigham Young.

Gardiner found employment with Brigham Young and on June 5, 1857, took charge of the tollgate at the mouth of City Creek Canyon on the edge of Salt Lake City. After several months he became dissatisfied with his salary. He left this employment and immediately found himself the object of criticism for being out of step with the leadership. Brigham Young accused him of “wanting to go and swear my life against him.” Disregarding Gardiner’s protestations, Young cut him off from the church, saying that the young man’s apostasy dated from the time Young offered Gardiner seventy-five cents a day for his services as tollgate keeper. Gardiner never seems to have recovered his membership in the church, although the pedigree chart for Frederick Gardner2 shows, under the heading of LDS Ordinance Data, that he was “endowed” September 1903 and that he was “sealed to his parents” on June 19, 1894. The endowment on September 1903 was after his death; the sealing was probably done by a member of his family. To participate in temple rites it is necessary that the member be in good standing in the church and before participating in sealing rites, one must first have received his endowment. The pedigree chart fails to show any issue of his marriage to Sarah Smith, although his memoir notes that at the time he occupied his residence on Second East (see chapter 10), his family consisted of his “wife and two children, little Fred [Frederick W. Gardiner] and daughter Bella.”

Faced with the effect of his conflict with Young, Gardiner sought the protection of the new governor, Alfred Cumming, who provided him and others protective escort out of the territory. He found employment with Albert Sidney Johnston’s invading army at Fort Bridger, where it was preparing to put down the reputed rebellion of the Mormons. Returning to Utah with Johnston’s Army, he was surprised by the hostility shown him by former friends and acquaintances.

At various times he had worked as a clerk in a pharmacy. Sometimes he served as an assistant to a doctor. These experiences stimulated in him an interest in medicine as a vocation. With no formal training, he performed his first surgical operation at Camp Floyd, Utah Territory, in which he amputated two toes of a man whose feet had been frozen.

It was in this capacity in 1859, when he left Utah, that he traveled with the army acting as physician to those children who had survived the notorious 1857 massacre of the members of the Fancher wagon train at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah.

He then returned to New Orleans via St. Louis, where he established a residence and spent the period of the Civil War. His accounts of the 1860 election, the secession of the South, and life in war-torn New Orleans make fine reading.

Following the war he returned to England to accept employment with a relative of his wife, but upon arriving he learned the position was not available and found himself and family stranded. Through the generosity of a friend, he and his family were able to return to the United States and Utah. Back in the United States he was reunited for the last time with his friend, Job Salter who, after migrating to Salt Lake City, had returned east and settled in New Orleans. The last mention of Salter is in relation to Gardiner’s departure from New Orleans on July 4, 1868, bound for St. Louis. He and his family arrived in St. Louis on Saturday, July 11, 1868, on the steamboat W.R. Arthur. From St. Louis they proceeded to Omaha on the steamboat Henry S. Turner, arriving on the eighteenth. There he obtained employment as a laborer and worked on the construction of Omaha’s first gas works. The narrative breaks at this point, but, following the insertion of a page containing genealogical notes on various members of the Gardiner family, it continues for an additional 11 pages, although in a completely different hand. The first 137 pages of the manuscript are written in a bold script with few corrections or deletions, while the final 11 pages of the manuscript are in a different handwriting but in basically the same style and composition, as though Gardiner might have employed an amanuensis to whom he dictated these last pages.

Gardiner and his family returned to Salt Lake City in the spring of 1869 and reveled in a reunion with relatives and the renewal of old friendships. Despite the uncertainty of his standing in the church, he promptly called upon Brigham Young. Within a week of that meeting, Young asked him if his return to Salt Lake City was final. When Gardiner replied in the affirmative, he was told to make plans to journey to St. George as a colonizer. After a day mulling over the matter, Gardiner declined to go because he wished to pursue his profession in medicine. Gardiner recorded Brigham Young’s reaction: “President Young was not too happy about my decision.” Apparently he was able to mollify him “and after another hour of conversation he [Brigham Young] wished me well and promised to help me.” It can only be surmised that his break with the church was now complete.

He settled his family at a home on “second east.”3 After some success and some controversy, he experienced a change in his health and his ability to make a living and accepted his son’s invitation to move into his “large home on the east end of town.”4

In the narration’s conclusion he remarked that “his days are numbered” and that “it is now in the quiet, I feel His presence.” The July 5, 1903, issue of the Salt Lake Tribune, in a column headed “Died,” gives this brief obituary: “Gardiner—At his home in Salt Lake, July 4, 1903, of old age and general debility. Dr. F. Gardiner. Funeral from the residence, 27 South 900 East, today at 4 o’clock.”

The reader will see Gardiner as a religious, compassionate person who is sufficiently candid to admit his mistakes and foibles, including his sometimes wayward behavior as a physician. While viewing Gardiner’s world through his alert, perceptive eyes, the reader may be quietly disturbed by the author’s refusal to focus clearly on himself and the lives of his family. He holds the reader at arm’s length as he writes narrowly about his personal experiences and the places he has seen. Despite a few loving references to his wife, Gardiner provides little information on this woman. She is always a vague figure in his story’s background and in the end simply fades from the scene. He is silent as to the temperament and personalities of his children. There are but a few references to his parents and other members of the family. These omissions can be explained as representative of the writing style of the period, which maintained an impersonal air as a matter of “good form.” The narrative is nevertheless a fascinating story of the life and travels of one man—Frederick Gardiner—whom the reader sees as Gardiner saw himself.

The manuscript of this narrative seems to have been retained in the family until it was brought to the attention of Everett L. Cooley, then head of Western Americana, Marriott Library, University of Utah, by Dr. Clarice E. Short of the University’s Department of English sometime in 1971. It was acquired by the University Libraries by a Deed of Gift granted April 26, 1972, by Marjorie C. Paramore on behalf of her mother Claire Gardiner Corfield. A granddaughter of Frederick Gardiner, Mrs. Corfield remembered him as a gentle, active, and mentally alert old man. In a brief handwritten reminiscence attached to the Deed of Gift, she recalled that her grandfather “always made the plum puddings at Christmas time; delighted in chopping kindling for the stoves and fireplaces; took great pride in the appearance of his bed (smoothing the featherbed with his cane until the surface was perfectly level); he maintained his interest in medicine by collecting and reading medical treatises, particularly about small pox, and rewarded his grandchildren for their services by returning to them toys which they had lost or misplaced and which he had carefully gathered up and put in his bureau drawers for safe keeping.”

There is little in these remembrances to give us insight into Gardiner, the man. But nothing diminishes Gardiner’s narration of his role in one of the most fascinating periods of American history—a period that saw the incredible western movement, the drama of the frontier, nineteenth century Mormondom, and the agonies of the Civil War.

In editing this narrative every attempt has been made to reproduce it as it was written without changes in spelling, punctuation, or grammar. The goal has been to present the original as closely as the printed word can follow the written one.

Hugh C. Garner

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Chapter Two
Living in New Orleans

Bro. Salter and I as well as many more of the passengers go ashore and to the Market, where we get a good cup of coffee, and the remaining portion of the day was well occupied by looking around the city. Bro. Salter rented a room for us, namely himself George Shell and I. George is a young boy whose name I have heretofore omitted to mention he is a little older than I am very steady and quiet, never speaking to anyone unless spoken to. We are very much pleased with our new home. It is very different from being crowded in the hold of the ship, surrounded by water and hundreds of miles from land. Now we are confronted with a new trouble. As evening approaches there are numerous flying Insects swarming around us, making a hearty meal from our faces and hands. If we cannot keep free from them I fear we shall have a poor night’s rest. They must be terribly hungry, for if any part of the body is the least exposed, they take hold of it as though they had not eaten anything for a week. We get through the night by covering ourselves with our bed clothes, and the next morning are told they are Mosquitoes.

It has been said, that after a heavy wind from the woods at the back part of the city they sometimes come in such swarms as to carry of[f] Bedding Bedstead and the Sleeper with it. But I believe this story smells a little too strong of untruth and I will not pursue it. The people defend themselves from these pests by having thin netting called (Mosquito bar) surrounding and above their beds. Bro. Salter bought one of these bar’s to day so I think we shall rest better to night. Well this is a fine city. I have seen no Idlers or beggars, and am told that all can get work who desire it. That is quite encouraging to me. Having looked around a few days, George and I start out one morning in search of employment, after going a short distance we separated, each taking a different course. This being my first experience in having to seek for employment, I preferred to be alone, as I fully realized my innate modesty and lack of courage in so doing. This I soon found however was an unnecessary trouble. For as I was walking on St. Charles Street, a Gentleman called me and enquired if I was looking for work. And if I could wash tumblers, I at once replied in the affirmative and engaged myself to him for $8.00 per month and board. The following morning I commenced in my new Occupation. Bro. Salter came with me to see me installed, and that all was right in regard to my agreement. George has not been quite So fortunate not having yet found anything to do. Bro. Salter has found employment with Bro. Mandel at House painting. That being Bro. Mandels regular trade, he takes contracts and employs Bro. Salter and others of our brethren who crossed the sea with us to help him. In this manner each was a blessing to the other and through the bonds of the everlasting covenant they could each rely upon the other.

Here let me mention the name of Elder Thos McKenzie13 who being acquainted here, had been sent by the authorities in Zion, to look after the interests of our immigrants who arrived, and form a branch for the benefit of those who were unprepared to continue their journey, and to charter such boats as might become necessary for those who went on to St. Louis. This mission was honorably conducted by him, his untiring efforts for the welfare of all gave general Satisfaction. There being probably more than a hundred members who had not sufficient means to go forward. A hail had been rented by him for the purpose of holding our meetings which proved an inestimable blessing to us all, the winter passing along both pleasantly and profitably. While in my position as tumbler washer an occurrence took place in the early part of Nov. which I may not pass without mention. It was in the evening just after dark. Mr. Hagan the Barkeeper was talking to me, when suddenly a terrible noise broke forth which shook the building almost like an earthquake. He sent me out to discover the cause, and on enquiring from parties on the street, I was told it was a Steamboat explosion on the river, and I quickly ran down there. When my eyes beheld such a scene, which I hope may never be my lot to look upon again. Heads, Arms, legs and Mangled bodies were scattered over the ground in all directions. I saw two cases of women who were lying dead with their babies in their arms. The city authorities at once sent ambulances and men with torches to care for the wounded and send them to hospitals, while the limbs and what could be found of the remains of the dead were carried to the City Hall, that they might if possible be recognized by their friends. The glare of the lighted torches reflecting upon the faces and bodies of the dead, whose skin in many cases had peeled off, caused a most ghastly appearance. There were Said to be more than 360 lives lost by this sad catastrophy. The Steam Boat Storm had just arrived from Louisville and was pressing in to the wharf [on] one Side of the Steamboat Louisiana, and another Steam Boat was coming in on the other side. While the Louisiana having just received her cargo had steam up, and was backing out for departure, crowded with passengers as were also the incoming boats. When all at once the boilers of the Louisiana exploded carrying away the cabins of all three of the boats, portions of which were carried half a mile away, doubtless many persons were thrown into the river and were never found. I will now mention my thoughts in regard to another subject. While holding my situation at the saloon, I had many opportunities of going out and becoming somewhat acquainted with the city, and the manners and customs of its inhabitants. There are a great number of Negroes, nearly all of whom are Slaves. And on different Streets are large halls occupied as Marts or stores, for the sale or purchase of Slaves. While passing along the street in the day time, The doors being generally open during the day, You can see probably one hundred of them, are sitting down, the men and boys on one side and the women and girls on the other. All are dressed up for Sale. While I have been looking at one of these places on Gravier Street, Two Gentlemen have arrived, one of whom I have Seen in the Saloon, he is a young Planter and come to purchase a girl to take care of his children, or whatever duties he may think proper to impose upon her. The other person is a Doctor whom he has brought with him for the purpose of examining her. They pass along the front of the row in company with the agent or Salesman. As they move forward One is called upon to stand up, then another while a passive examination is made. Then finally he discovers a bright mullatto, who appears about 16 years of age and is quite good looking. She is ushered into a private room where she is stripped to a nude condition and a careful examination is made of all parts of the body by the Dr. and is pronounced by him to be sound. The money is then paid and she is transferred to her new owner. One peculiar case of Slave selling, which touched my sympathetic feelings deeply, came under my observation on Royal Street. It was that of a whole family, consisting of Husband, Wife and two children who were sold at an Auction. The Father being sold first, then the mother. They were sold to different parties. The children were then put up, and it was very sorrowful to listen to the pleadings of that Mother, with the purchaser of herself, to buy her children also, that they may be where she could see them. But no he had not money sufficient, nor did he wish her to be troubled with them. I am told that occurences of this kind take place very frequently. This appears to me the worst, and most blameable part of the Slavery question I have yet seen. I have heard that the Masters, beat and scourge them most cruelly. But I have not seen anything of the kind, nor do I believe that it occurs very often. For the southern people as a class are Noble minded kind hearted people, as can be found in any country. Of course cruel wicked men may be found here as elsewhere. There are those who under the influence of passion would not hesitate to kill his victim. But I believe this class of men are limited. And moreover it would be against their own interests, to brutally treat their Slaves. As no planter desired to have sick negroes on his hands. According to my judgment so far as my experience extends, I believe that the Negroes as a class, are far more humanely treated and taken care of, Than are the laboring classes of European countries.14 I must now carry my attention back to the Saloon. There are two Gentlemen who come and take their drinks here every evening. One of them whose name is Hunter has paid me considerable attention. And appears very liberal in giving me small sums of money. He keeps a book store a few doors from here. The other is Mr. Reynolds, he is a painter. They are very friendly with each other. Mr. Hunter has offered me [a] situation at $12.00 per month to go and attend in his store. I think it a more respectable business than my present employment. I shall be free on Sunday’s that I can attend our meetings and the raise of my wages will be much to my advantage in preparing me for my journey Zionward in the Spring. So I engage with him and inform Mr. C. O[.] Meara my present Boss, who thinks it a good thing for me, and willingly pays me off. Then I go home and inform Bro. Salter of my new contract, and stay with him all night. And the following morning Bro. Salter came with me to see me installed in my New business. What a change, and how strange everything seems. There are probably eight or ten thousand volumes in the store. And I am requested to keep everything neat and in proper order. At the back of the store is something which I was not aware of. It is a private Picture room, for to obtain admission to it, the person desirous of entering must pay a fee of 50 cents. But the person entering is entitled to any picture found hanging on the walls. These pictures are the most vulgar indecent pieces of art, which can well be imagined. On payment of the fee, I have to show persons into the room. And to replace any picture which may be taken. We do not however have many persons enter there. They show their good Sense by keeping away from it. Up Stairs Mr. Hunter’s family reside a Wife and three children.

There is also a small bed room which I occupy and as they live and eat there. I have to do likewise. I arise in the morning Sweep out the store and put things in order. After Mr. Hunter has had his breakfast, he comes to take charge, while I go up to mine. I have been here but a short time, and have found Mrs. Hunter in a very indelicate position on several occasions when going to my meals, she is certainly a very immodest and careless person. She has exposed her whole body to me several times, and when I have been busy in the picture room, she has come in to view the pictures. Scanning her eyes over the walls she would discover some which were more vulgar than others, She would exclaim, do you not think that is good. This was very disgusting to my sense of propriety, and also to my religious views. At night after the store was closed Mr. and Mrs. Hunter with Mr. Reynolds would generally sit down to a game of cards. And I would have to go to the St. Charles Hotel, for whiskey punch for them. On two or three occasions I found my thoughts engaged on what seemed to me most flagrant violations of decency, and disrespect towards her Husband, and of a loving nature towards Mr. Reynolds. I did not say anything about it to any one. But her husband appears to have noticed it as well as myself. For shortly afterwards he followed her to market one morning and saw her enter Mr. Reynolds office, into which place he soon followed, and finding her in a very peculiar position at once fired at Mr. Reynolds shooting him in the arm. It proved to be only a flesh wound and he soon got well. Seeking to take revenge on Hunter, he came up by the Store one morning, and catching him unawares stabbed him in the arm, and afterwards eloped with Mrs. Hunter across the Lake to Mississippi leaving her children in care of her husband. These things caused considerable scandal, and Spicy reports in the morning papers. Bro. Salter having read the reports spoke to me in regard to them. And on my mentioning the picture room. He was determined to see it, accordingly on the following day he came to the store for that purpose, and on being admitted thereto took one glance, and then called for Mr. Hunter to pay me off at once, or suit would be commenced immediately. He would not permit me to remain there another hour. I received my pay got my trunk and went home in company with Bro. Salter. After staying at home two or three days. I obtained a situation as waiter at the Florence House on the Corner of Camp Street and Lafayette Square, where I remained until the begining of April when we left for St. Louis. I will here mention one little episode which took place during my stay at the Florence House. There was employed there, a young Englishman who seeing that the business was new to me, was very kind in showing me how to perform my various duties, for which I was very grateful to him. A few evenings after I had been there, He proposed to show me the sights of the city, or such part of it, which I had not before seen. And accordingly took me down to the Globe ball room in the 3rd district. Here I saw what I had never before seen or heard of. On our entrance in going up stairs we were stopped by a man, whose duty it was to examine all persons entering there. In order to prevent any concealed weapons from being carried into the ballroom. My partner had carried a dirk knife, but had hidden it in the gutter before entering. I carried a small cane of which the guard relieved me until I should come out. On entering the ball room, we took our seats near the entrance door. There were present 20 or 25 Girls and 12 or 15 men. At one end of the Hall was a brass band, and at the other a drinking saloon, where the men after dancing would lead his partner to take a drink. But as yet, there were not sufficient men to accomodate all the Girls. Consequently those who had no male partner, would in order to attract attention either take another Girl as partner or else dance in a most lewd and lascivious manner by themselves. But soon however there were men enough to satisfy them all. And the band kept up their music, and the dancing continued nearly all the time. We remained looking at them for nearly two hours. When as if by a preconcerted signal, the lights were all at once turned out, and three or four shots were fired. My partner and I passed out of the door, and down the stairs in double quick order, leaving my cane behind me in the hands of the guard. And [I] did not return for it. My partner found his dirk which he had hidden and we returned home. On the following morning the papers reported one man killed and two wounded. But the cause of the trouble was not discovered. Thus was I made acquainted with the night scenes of New Orleans, which I have no desire to witness again. Nor should I have gone there at that time had I have known what it was. It reminds me of the (old adage,) one half of the inhabitants of the world, know nothing of the acts of the other half. As I shall soon leave this city for St. Louis I will briefly relate what I should have mentioned in a earlier part of this narrative. “Viz” That Bro. Franklin D. Richards15 one of the twelve apostles arrived in our midst from the valley. He is on his way to Liverpool to releive Elder Orson Pratt and to preside over the British Mission. While here he gave the saints much good council and encouragement. Before my departure I take a glance backwards to the time I left my home. it is little more than seven months, during that time I have become acquainted with many good people and some who were not so good. My experience has been varied, many things have come under my notice which I had never before thought of. I have endeavored to do right, and my conscience does not accuse me of having committed any great wrong.



1. Family History Records, Family Ancestral File No. 477D-4H, Pedigree Chart, Historical Department, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah (hereafter cited as LDS Archives). The genealogical data obtained for these files are generally submitted by family members or a family representative and are not easily confirmed or verified.

2. Ibid., Ancestral File (TM)-ver B306.

3. R. L. Polk’s Salt Lake City Directory of 1895-96, p. 310, lists Frederick Gardiner as “phys. 120 E. 2nd S., res. same.”

4. Polk’s Salt Lake City Blue Book for 1907 gives Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Gardiner’s address as 27 South 9th East.

13. Thomas McKenzie was born in Dublin, Ireland, September 1813, the son of William and Mary McKenzie. McKenzie served as superintendent of immigration for the church in New Orleans from 1849 until 1853. Easton-Black, Membership, 30:333.

14. Gardiner’s observations as to the care and health of slaves are mirrored in the opinions of some post-bellum Civil War physicians concerning the incidence of disease among blacks prior to Emancipation. There was an almost universal opinion at that time that diseases such as tuberculosis, insanity, and syphilis were practically unknown among blacks prior to the war, whereas afterwards the incidence was much higher. Dr. J. H. Claiborne, for example, states that as a slave the black received good care, a wholesome diet, and prompt medical attention and was restrained from dissipations which were injurious to his health. In his view it was only as freed men that blacks became susceptible to consumption, scrofula, cancer, and syphilis. John H. Claiborne, “The Negro: His Environment as a Slave; His Environment as a Freed Man,” Virginia Medical Semi-Monthly 5 (1900): 3-5. In contrast, some contemporary and later writers have suggested that a reported increase in insanity in post Civil War years among blacks was the result of the expansion of institutional resources. Albert Deutsch, “The First U. S. Census of the Insane (1840) and Its Use as Pro-Slavery Propaganda,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 15 (1944): 469-82. As for tuberculosis being rare prior to Emancipation, there was, at that time, some difficulty in diagnosing the disease. It was only after the war that enough statistics were available to be reasonably sure of the status of the disease. One observer attempted to show statistically that in 1850, the life expectancy of a 20-year-old white man was about 23.72 years and for a Negro, 22.30 years. Charles S. Sydnor, “Life Span of Mississippi Slaves,” American Historical Review 35 (1930): 566-74.

There is little doubt that health conditions in antebellum Civil War times in the United States were very bad compared with today’s standards. Census reports of the period for the states of Massachusetts and Louisiana reported a mortality rate per 1,000 of 19.4 and 23.0, of whites versus blacks respectively (U.S. Bureau of Census, The Seventh Census of the United States, 1850), or about twice the rate reported in 1945 of 10.6. U.S. National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945); William Dosite Postell, The Health of Slaves on Southern Plantations (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951), pp.142-46. Due to the radical shift in demographics and the rapid urbanization of American blacks in the post-1950s, these dated statistics are the last that picture the health conditions of the southern black of the nineteenth century. In this observation, Gardiner touched on a subject fraught with controversy. One writer has stated: “The actual health of the slaves nevertheless remains a subject of sharp disagreement among scholars. The wide range in practice among slaveholders meant that even if most slaves received good care, a large number of others did not. And the poor quality of the medical profession may well have resulted in worse conditions for slaves with concerned masters who provided physicians than for those who had to rely on folk medicine and trust to nature” (Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, the World the Slaves Made, 1st ed. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1930), p. 62).

15. Franklin Dewey Richards was born in Richmond, Massachusetts, April 2, 1821. He was baptized into the Mormon church by his father, Phineas Richards, in 1837. Richards departed for England on his first church mission on September 22, 1846, where he was appointed to preside over the Scottish Mission assisted by his brother, Samuel. In 1848, he returned to the States and Utah. On February 12, 1849, he was ordained an apostle by Heber C. Kimball. He was a member of the first company of missionaries sent from the Rocky Mountains, among whom were Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow, and Edwin Hunter. In January 1850, they were in St. Louis. The precise date of Richards’s arrival in New Orleans is not clear. He was sent to Liverpool, arriving March 29, 1850. He was appointed president of the British Mission in the absence of Orson Pratt, who had been recalled to Council Bluffs. In 1852 Richards returned to the States, arriving in Salt Lake City on August 20. On August 29, he was at the special conference in Salt Lake City at which time the revelation on polygamy was announced. He was elected and commissioned brigadier general of the Second Brigade of Infantry of the Nauvoo Legion and, in this capacity, fought against Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston’s army in the 1857 Utah War. Lorenzo Snow became president of the church in 1898 and Richards succeeded Snow as president of the Twelve Apostles. He died at his home in Ogden, Utah, December 9, 1899. Jenson, Biographical Encyclopedia, 1: 115-21.